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The roles of training and research in the managerial development of members of staff

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Organisation that neither train nor develop their staff will face the problems of quick ageing and loss of competitiveness, and the danger of extinction in this millennium. The dynamism and changes in the environments in which organisation operate today have become irreversibly, discontinuous, complex, and difficult to comprehend. The diversity, variability, spasmodic nature and sheer growth of knowledge especially in the area of information technology make the continuous upgrading of the critical skills and capabilities of employees a major imperative of human resources management. A recently concluded skill audit in selected, Nigerian public and private sector organisation shows that there is a major gap between the skills that management and non-management employees possess and that those that are required by their organisations to survive in the new corporate world and maintain best industry practice (Oyedijo .A.I, 1997).

The factors of productions are essential element for the survival of any business organisation; whether private or public enterprises. They need certain input i.e the factors of production. These are generally known as land, labour, capital, and entrepreneur. Of all the factor of production that have been identified for survival of any organisation, "Labour" is the most important and skill remain unique. The uniqueness of labour, which to some extent includes even the skill of the entrepreneur. In order to be able to make use of all other factors of production; labour power has to be achieved because without labour, production of goods and services cannot take place in any form. It is therefore obvious that the extent to which any business organisation succeeds or fails depend on how it is able to manage its human resources.

The drive for organisational goal attainment is central to every management. A major determinant in this drive is the level of efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation's human capital. As often said, the structure and position do not make an organisation but human being; do as they determine the activities goes on in the organisation. The ability of the organisation to achieve its goals depend on the following, (i) The number (ii) The skills (iii) The technique of its employees. So, for the purpose of goals attainment, survival and relevance in the competitive society, every organisation must show enough concern for the quality of its personnel. The obvious way of doing this is by training and development.

Human resources planning is an integrated set of activities designed to utilise the potential of employees than establishment. Human beings as active agent accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social, economic and political organisation and carry towards national development. Training and development is an important aspect of organisational management. It is a function that seeks to make available potential hands on deck. More importantly, training has a great impact on people (employee) because past event have shown that many left their organisation because their need for training was not identify which makes it difficult for them to be at a competitive level with their counterpart or colleagues from other organisation. Training and development has, therefore gained so mush prominence that management of organisation now talk about training and retraining. The new employee joining an organisation, however, well endowed in skills and knowledge, can hardly perform at the standard required of his position. The gap between his initial and expected performance will need to be filled through training and development.

It is a known fact that employee development process and training has been associated with performance. It will also help to build confidence in the workers and makes him efficient on the job. The question are however is "Are all the ascertain true?". It is somehow obvious that effort towards achieving the desire productivity level as remained a concerted struggle yet to be won. There is a need to find solution to the current needs and problems of the organisation, especially those related to productivity. This is due to rapidly growing business operating environment.

This research work will focus on the effect of training and development on workers productivity. The result of this study will serve as an input for further planning and formulation of relevant policies concerning the employee.

Training and development in public and private enterprises are big business, very big business indeed it refer to the process of acquiring new knowledge and skills for carrying out responsibility. They are undertaken by employees to produce change in their performance ability. in view of "Chruden and Sherman Jnr (1980), Training is any organisationally oriented procedure, which is intended to foster learning among organisational member. The desired learning is in a direction that is intended to contribute to overall organisational objective. At the same time, an effective training programme must demonstrably contribute to the satisfaction of the trainee's personal goals. Training is one of the most gigantic and pervasive enterprises in any economy. Like all other large-scale enterprises training and development are affected by demographic economic, political and social trends. The training manger must recognise that there are changes, trends, challenges and issues that must be dealt with now while they can be shaped, redirected and exploited before their fill effect are felt. The growing pace of technological development is rendering existing and skills of production obsolete. Modernisation and technological breakthrough speed up the production process, requiring new knowledge, skills and ultimately demanding training and retraining as an effective way of coping with such developments.

No enterprises can be guaranteed a permanent place in our highly competitive society and no manager can last very long unless he keeps his business competitive. If an enterprise is to compete successfully and endure, its product or service must excel. There was a time when individual's job future could be predicted on the basis of his current occupation; that time is past but presently, the sweeping technological advances and other factors that affect the labour market are changing-the whole mix of job and the skills needed to perform them. All that has a profound effect on the economy. What is even more important is that, it has a great impact on people (employee) unless training is provided; the livelihood and hundreds and thousands are likely to be wiped out in the next decade because those people will be caught without the right skills. Unskilled young people just entering the labour market will be particularly weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally (Attrition).

This study intend to show us that the only one way to cope with this problem is to have training and retraining programmes; because training and development as an indispensable part of management will help to equip back to work unemployed or underemployed. It can prevent skill from becoming obsolete. It can help equip out of school youth (graduate) with skills that will quality them for jobs.

1.2            STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Effort towards achieving the desired productivity level has remained a concerted struggle yet to be won. It is of important to examine the rapidly growing business environment, which has continued to increase problem of adaptation to its demands. As result of the growing pace of technological development, existing skill of production are being rendered obsolete hence the need for training and retraining as an effective the solution in order to achieve higher productivity and organisation effectiveness.

Over the years the problem posed to corporate management is under scored by the sharply rising rates to attrition among young management and professional personnel. Industry has not developed effective first line manager fast enough to meet his needs. As a consequence, many company under developing their most valuable resources young men and woman. They are incurring heavy attrition costs and contributing to the negative attitude young people often has about careers in business.

There arise a need to find solution to current need problems of the organisation such as how product quality, wastage or increase in scraps, or increasing errors in typing and so on.

1.3            OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Generally, training and development enhance the performance of the employee for the actualisation of organisational objectives. This research work will explore the relationship between training and development and workers productivity in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA (PLC) and attempt to recommend ways of overcoming problems, if any.

This study is interested in finding out the value of motivation or benefit accruable to the employee from the productivity level of profitability of the organisation. Every good training and development programmes must have well stated specific objective which serve three (3) main purpose: (i) Determine appropriate training or development techniques or method, (ii) Determine its outcome for both the trainee and the trainee (iii) Determine its evaluation.

This study will further seek to find out the adequacy and inadequacy of the training and development programmes offered by organisation. Also to know if training and development programmes can change workers behaviour and better their performance, organisational effectiveness and advancement. It hopes to achieve the following objectives among others:

i.                   Achievement of organisational effectiveness through training and development.

ii.                 Attainment of organisational objective through training and development

iii.              To investigate the improvement on employee's performance as a result of training and development.

"Carrel and Kuzmit" (1982) also identify the following general objectives of training and development;

a.                 To satisfy the personal growth and development

b.                 To orient new employees

c.                  To improve performance and achieve effectiveness

d.                 To provide job competency

e.                  To update employee's skill and avoid managerial obsolescence

f.                   To solve problems

g.                 Lastly, to prepare for promotion. Also the study will examine and investigate the various gains from training and development.

1.4            RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study will focus on TEXACO OIL (PLC) as it case study. The workers in the organisation will be interview and data will be collected via questionnaire that would be distributed to them. This is all in a bid to answer the following questions among others:

i.                   Does monetary reward motivate the workers to perform better?

ii.                 Why the need for training and development of employee?

iii.              Are training and development programmes designed for specific category of employee?

iv.              Does training and development increase workers productivity?

v.                 What are the gains of training and development programmes?

vi.              What are the methods of training and development employed by the organisation?

vii.            Is there a positive relationship between training and development and organisational effectiveness? Etc

1.5            STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

This study will focus on the effect of training and development on workers productivity in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA (PLC). The study will go further to test the following hypothesis if:

Ho:     There is a significant relationship, between training and development and workers productivity

Hi:     There is a positive relationship between training and development and workers productivity.

Ho:     There is a significant relationship between training and development and organisational effectiveness

Hi:     There is a positive relation between training and development and organisational effectiveness.

1.6            SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

Organisations generally assign certain task to employees. The extent to which these employees are prepared to carry out such tasks determine whether such employees will make a success out of the tasks they have been given to carry out. When employees are not properly trained, they are in no position to achieve concrete result for the organisation. For "Carrel and Kuzmits" (1982) "Training is the systematic process by which employees learn skills, information, or attitudes to further organisational and personal goals". It is no surprise that they therefore conclude that "every training system operates with a philosophy, set of belief concerning peoples, profit and productivity".

This research will be very relevant because it intend to investigate how human resources planner such as personnel manager would identify employees with great potential and achievement. Another significant aspect of this study is to examine how training, retraining, recruitment and retaining of experienced personal are been done in Texaco Oil Nigeria (PLC).

This study will be of relevant as its interested in examining the relationship between training and development in the organisation, the personnel problems such as lack of motivation, absenteeism, labour turn over and even corruption. Lastly, the result of this study could serve as inputs for further planning and formulation of relevant policies concerning the employee such policies in turn I believe may lead to improved performance and workers standard of living.

1.7     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will focus on Texaco Oil Nigeria (PLC) as its case study. Some workers in the company will be interviewed and the data collected from questionnaire that will be distributed to the workers will be used to conclude the impact of training and development on workers productivity.


1.8     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TAXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC.

The marketing of Texaco products in Nigeria commenced in 1913 when they were distributed exclusively by Champagne Franchise de I'Afrique accidental (CFAO) of France, a retail company. In 1964, Texaco Africa Limited started direct marketing of Texaco product selling through service stations and kiosks acquired from (CFAO) on lease terms. It also entered the aviation and burking business.

On August 12,1699 Texaco Limited was incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Texaco Africa Limited, this inheriting the business formally carried on in Nigeria by Texaco Africa Limited with the promulgation of the Nigeria indigenisation decree in 1978, 40% share of Texaco Nigeria Limited were sold to the Nigeria individual and organisations by Texaco Petroleum Company.

In 1990, the companies and Allied Matter Decree came into force and this necessitated the dropping of "Limited" from the company's corporate name to the prescribed Public Limited Company (Plc). A leading producer of quality lubricating Oils and Gases, Texas Petroleum Company also own's 60% of Texaco Nigeria Plc shares.

The company is proud of its commercial expertise its efficiency technical standards. Texaco Nigeria Plc has its head office in Lagos and PortHarcourt and operates in must of the 36 (thirty-six) states of the federation and the Federal Capital Territory through divisions.

Since its founding in 1913, Texaco Nigeria Plc has growth 381 service with over 235 employees and a retail market shares of 8 percentage. In a country known for being rich in petroleum resources, Texaco Nigeria Plc plays a significant role through a storage facility in Apapa which can hold in excess of 100,000 barrels and a lubricant blending plant which produces up to 250,000 barrels a year.

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Training: Training is any organisationally oriented procedure, which is intended to foster learning among organisational members.

          Development: Development means the process of acquiring managerial and technical skills on the job by a manager. Such managerial skills are in areas of decision making, leading, planning etc (Carrel and Kuzmits (1982).

Attrition: A process of making your enemy (competitors) weaker by repeatedly attacking them or creating problems for them.

Absenteeism: Absenteeism from work by an employee during working hours. The fact of being frequently away from work especially without good reasons.

Motivation: It is goal-directed behaviour. It starts with deficiency (needs), which activates behaviour (drives) aimed at a goal or goals (that which can alleviate the deficiency) (Luthans, 2005:231).

Vulnerable: to be vulnerable means to abuse, attack, illness. Also something weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally

Entrepreneur: Person taking commercial initiative outside and on behalf of his/her organisation.

Obsolete: No longer used (out of date) because something new has been invented. Technological innovation.

Factors of Production: These are land, labour, capital, and entrepreneur. They cause or influence development of business.

            Coaching: Individual or small group management training characterised by on-the-job training, continuous assessment personal counselling and tuition.

          T-Group Training: A method of training in human relations using informal roles and climate in a group structured to direct participants attentions to the inter-personal events and relations. Participants learn by extending their awareness of their actual and possible behaviour within the group.

 


REFRENCES

Carrel M.R. and F.E.Kuzmit (1982), "Human Resources Management".

Columber, Ohio Meril Publishing Coy; Bell and Howell Coy. Pp. 212

Chruden H.J. and Jnr (1980), "Personnel Management": Utilisation of

Human Resources. W. Sherman. Sherman Ohio South-Western publishing Coy: 1980. Pp. 187.

Dale's Beach (1985), "Personnel: Management of People at Work".

Gungan I. (1978), "Approaches to Training and Development".

Jones O. Obikoya (1996), "Essential of Personnel Management"

Steve A. Iyayi, "Training and Development of Human Resources".

Fundamental of Human Resources Management in Nigeria Edited by I.B. Belllo Iman, B.O. Oshionebo and S.A.Ojeifo.

Ubeku A. K. (1975), "Personnel Management in Nigeria" Ethiopia,

Benin City.


CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1            INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the literature review of the research will be approached with an open but critical mind to the existing literature in the sphere of training and development in theory and practical. This will be related to the concept of motivation because only a few place here some recognition that motivate individual to greater and more active participation in organisational activities. Every organisation needs have well trained and experienced people to perform the job that have to be done. If not it becomes necessary to raise the skill level and also increase the versatility and adaptability of employees.

This activity is also the exclusive duty of the personnel specialist. Training and development involves the improvement of knowledge and skills. This duty is just as old as personnel administration. This process involves on the job training in a work environment. The vestibule training is where the employee is trained before he is placed on the job. Training and development constitute an important back up to the recruitment and selection process in organisation because training essentially seeks to provide the organisations' employees with job skills necessary to the business set up.

Employees training and development is at the heart of workers utilisation, production, commitment, motivation and growth. Studies have shown it that many workers fails in organisations because their need for training was not identified and provided for as an indispensable part management function. Training and development exercise have become increased activities of management functions of organisation and will remain so. Changing societal demands on organisations for improved services, coupled with the remarkable increase in automation, well explain the continuous increase in the scope and imperativeness of training and development for the organisations. The emerging truth is that there is nothing like over training and development. The consequence is that employers now talk of training and retraining. Systematic training and development may help to build confidence in the worker and make him effective and efficient on the job.

2.2            CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

As jobs have become more complex, the importance of employee training has increased when jobs were simple, easy to team and influenced to only a small degree by technological changes taking place during the last quarter. Century in our society we have created increase pressures for organisation to readapt their product and services. The services produced are offered the types of jobs required and the types of skills necessary to complete those jobs.

Manpower training and development is central to all organisations and has become an improvement area of contemporary management for any organisation to service. The need to train and develop available staff to handle the affair of the organisation is very important. Training and development have come to be identified by several experts as the most vital and effective strategy for achieving organisational goals, because human resources planning and job objective are derived from corporation strategic plan and objectives. There are various schools, on the definition of training and development.

Training and development refer to the processes of acquiring new knowledge and skills for carryout responsibilities. They are undertaken by employees to produce change in their performance ability. Training involves the process through which employees acquire knowledge, attitude and behaviour required for effective and efficient on the job performance. Training is a planned learning process which seek to bring about a relatively procurement change in an individual. This change of course is expected to rub on the employee's ability to perform on the job, which entails the changing of skills, knowledge, attitude or socio-behaviour.

Training- according to Davar (1950), training's main goal is "to induce a suitable change in the individual concerned". It is "to bridge the gap between existing performance ability and desired performance. Training and development has developed into important area of contemporary management because of the functional importance it has assumed in the recent past; many organisation usually provides general knowledge to its prospective employees, it is left to the organisations to train its workforce to suit its needs after employing them.

In general, "training" has been defined as the provision for the acquisition of skills that are needed for current jobs where as "development" means the process of acquiring managerial and technical skills on the job by a manager. Such managerial skills are in area of decision-making, co-ordinating, leading, planning etc. Development in this context is broader and more embracing as an activity than training. Carrel and Kuzmits (1982).

Many author have variously defined training and development in line with how they view it. DEPHILIPS (1964) defines training as the process which under company auspices seeks in a planned coordinated and continuous manner to develop in all employee those understanding, skills and attitude which will maximize individual present and future efficiency and the effectiveness of the overall company operations.

NWACHUKWU (1998) explains that training is an organisational effort aimed at helping employee to acquire basic required for the efficient execution of the functions for which he was hired. He further explained that employee's productivity is a function of will, ability and determination. In his own assertion, ARMSTRONG (1984), define training as the systematic development of the knowledge, skill and attitude required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job. BEACH (1975) defined training as the organisation initiated procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. The objective of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of the trainee. HINRICHS. (1976) defines training as any organised procedure, which intends to contribute to overall organisational objectives.

TRENCH AND SEWARD (1977) defined training as the systematic development and improvement of an individual ability to perform a specific task or job. Agreeing with him, HINRICHS (1976) also wrote that training is the systematic processing of altering the behaviour and or attitude of employees in direction to increase organisational achievement.

UBEKU (1975) defined management training as the process of development of managerial skills, knowledge and attitudes through instructions, demonstration, practice and planned experience to meet the present and future needs of the business.

 

          According to FASHOYIN employee training and development is an attempt to improve current or future performance by increasing through leaving, and employee's ability to perform by changing his attitudes and increasing his skills and knowledge. From this definition, employee development is seen as a planned process of providing employees with learning experience designed to enhance their contribution to organisational goals.

          STONE (1980), in his book "understanding personnel management" defined training as any organisational planned effort to change the behaviour or attitudes of employees so that they can perform to acceptable standard on the job. But KOONTZ and HINRICHS still maintain that training pertain to the programmes that facilitate the learning process while development is viewed as a systematic, integrated and planned approach to improving the effectiveness of group of people in an organisation. Another school of thought HACKET (1979) hold same view; MC GEHEE and THAYER (1964) added another dimension to the definition of development by explaining that it is a course of action designed to enable the individual realise his potential for growth in the organisation. They believe it refers to future rather than present jobs. There has been a controversy on the relationship between training and development whether training can be said to be inclusive or exclusive of development.

          Training and development is a complex mixture of many thing aimed at increasing the ability of the individual and groups to contribute to the achievement of organisational goals. One important and interesting thing in these definitions is the emphasis on the element of planning. Training is supposed to be planned and deliberate. Organisations encourage a training scheme aimed at modifying behaviour of its member in the direction of increasing organisational goals. This explains the reason why companies make deliberate effort to train their work force to acquire job relevant skill and improve behaviour patterns.

          Human resources training and development would have as its focal point the enhancement of organisational efficiency and effectiveness, which lead to the achievement of corporate goals and objective. According to TURNOW and GARTLAND (1980) "managers are the key link for maximising the positive relationship between individual performance and organisational effectiveness. RUSH, turnover GARTLAND and PINTO (1977) in a paper suggested the four keys in human resources development and training:

a.                  Design and evaluate steps to ensure that stated objective are achieved, performance and potentials are improved and that these are transferred to job performance.

b.                  Identify the relevant description of key management development objective via a job

c.                   Obtain comprehensive description of key management job and the individual's performance strength and weakness;

d.                  Individualise the development programme through the prioritisation of development and the areas and the selection of development activities.

In a nutshell, training involves identification of training need, analysing the training need, setting the objectives, planning the programme, executing the programme, selection of participants, monitoring and controlling, and evaluating the programme. A well organised training and development is often described as "systematic training"

Training is an end in itself but a means of improving employee and organisational efficiency. Thus, the analysis of training needs will be a continuous focus on employee and organisational objectives. Training is a short term process utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which non-managerial learns technical knowledge and skills for definite purpose. Lastly, training is any organisationally planned effort to change the behaviour and attitude of employee so that they can perform to acceptance standard on the job.

According to ARMSTRONG (1988) the aims of training are:

i.              To improve the performance of existing employee

ii.                 To shorten learning time so that new recruits reach their peak of efficiency as quickly as possible.

iii.              To help the people develop their capabilities so that the company can meet most, if not all its future requirement for mangers, supervisor and higher grade professionals, technical and sales, or production staff within the organisation.

Development is a long-term educational process utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. This helps to establish a link between management development and managerial effectiveness.

Long-term needs, on the other hand, entail projecting for future managerial needs of organisation taking into consideration its planned expansion, expected vacancies to be created by upward movement through promotion, resignation etc. the additional mangers required to cope with long-range needs come from two sources. First recruitment of new managers and second, development of existing personnel with potential for improvement. Management of organisation more popularly adopts the second option. Under this, supervisors are required to determine the strength and weakness of the manager and those who are promo table and are to be developed. It usually suggests a broader view of knowledge and skills acquisition than training.

It focuses more on employee potential than with immediate skill; it sees employees as adaptable resources. "HEDGES and ZIEGLER" sees development as being used in connection with managerial level and implies a broader order, which requires co-ordination and making decision based on analysis. They also went further to sub-divide development into supervising and executive. The executive development relates to middle and the top management while the supervisory relates to front line supervisor and foreman.

FASHOYIN TAYO identified two (2) broad approaches to training and development. These are:

i.                   On-the-job training programme

ii.                 Off-the-job training programme.

They are distinguish by who participate in them, secondly where the programme is conducted, thirdly, which employee ability is being changed i.e. whether technical skill, knowledge interpersonal skills, attitude, conceptual skill etc.

          ON-THE-JOB-TRAINING: It refers to instruments given to employees on the job by their supervisor or any other experienced employee. The techniques commonly used include:

Job Rotation: Which is also known as cross training. This is an act of putting an employee on different jobs for a specified period of time to enable him acquires the skills and knowledge for doing specific task. (Fansworth, 1975).

Apprenticeship Training: This method combines both the on-the job and off- the –job techniques. It runs with the cooperation between the employees, the government and educational institutions (technical or vocational school) and labour unions. It trains employees in vocations like welding, Carpentry, building, barbering, plumbing, driving etc, which is evaluated with tests administered to participants. (Stratuss 1971).

Enlarged Responsibility: This is a popular on-the-job training method. The manager or supervisor assigns additional duties and responsibilities to his subordinate employee. He allows him the opportunity for decision-making by deliberately exposing him to challenging jobs and problems solving situations. The subordinate employee makes and learns from mistakes.

Orientation or Induction: This technique is usually used for both on and off the job programmes and for training and development. An orientation course provides the new employees with an understanding of the organisation, the contributions of employees to actualising organisational goals, and the contribution of the services of the organisation to the growth of the society.

          Generally, the employees will need to know about pay or remuneration and other conditions of services such as security, medical care and insurance policy for employees, housing and transportation etc. In some cases, the exercise is centred on history of the organisation. As organisation grow, it becomes necessary for them to also keep the old employee informed about changes in conditions of service, e.g pay review, welfare packages including benefits. The first few days make a very casting impression about the organisation on the employees. Confusion and enthusiasm are the two (2) dominant emotions during the new employ attempts to diminish the former and foster the latter (Meyer, 1977).

          Despite it usefulness, on-the-job training have the following problems:

i.                   Errors which are disastrous and which can be costly to the organisation could be made while they learn.

ii.                 It could lead to low productivity while employee develop their skill i.e. As they undergo training, employee attention is divided between what they are learning and the performance of their duty, this leads to the decrease in production and could affect the image of the organisation.

Some of its merits are

i.                   There is better training transfer while it affords employees to make direct contribution

ii.                  There is often no need of a separate area of training as this can be provided right on the company's premises

iii.                On-the-job training provides for the trainees, actual experience in managing and exposes them to the peculiarities of each department.

Off- The-Job- Training: This refers to any type of training conducted outside the job area of the employee. There are two (2) types of off-the-job training. First, "IN-HOUSE" training programmes arranged by organisations for the their employees using their facilities within the organisation but outside the job area of the trainee. Second, training programmes hold away from the organisation and conducted by professional association, educational institutions, consulting firms, even the organisation concerned at its own institute or training centre.

          Furthermore, off-the-job training involves formal course arranged for mangers to develop their managerial skills and techniques outside their jobs, either within the organisations premises or off-site. The facilities needed for each of these techniques vary from a small make shift classroom to an elaborate development centre with large lecture halls, supplemented by small conference room and sophisticated audio visual equipment, two way mirrors and all the frills.

          It should be maintained that there is no training method that is right for all situations. A number of trade-off must be made when actually making the choice of techniques and putting a training programme together. The cost and capacity of the trainers or trainees are all to be considered.

2.3            DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Several times effort and space have been devoted to identify the difference between training and development. First, the categorisation of the groups or state of the employers involved is different. Where as non-management personnel have historically used training to designate the acquisition of technically oriented skills, development is normally associated with the methods and activities designated to enhance skills of managers or future managers.

Second, training programmes focus on a smalter number of technical skills, while management development programme tend to focus on wide range skills. Example, training program on computer programming for a secretary is designed to replace traditional typing with the modern typewriter with a computer device for word processing, information storage and retrieval. But developing program for the manger will take cognisance of the manager's duties which include intricate skills in coordinating, organising, leading, planning, motivating, communicating, human relations and scheduling of duties. The program thus includes the mangers' conceptualisation of the organisation as part of his managerial skills in addition to his required technical skill and knowledge in the use of computer.

Third, training focuses on the short run while development aims at the long run. For the manger, development activities are continuous throughout his career. Managers therefore spend goods period of each of their working years in both on-and off-the-job development activities and programmes. (Carrel and Kuzmits; 1982).

In spite of these above normal areas of contrast, both training and development bring about change in behaviour of the individuals and important in the organisation. They are processes that are individual and organisation-targeted. In reality, all seems to agree on some silent profits such as:

i.                   Increasing productivity

ii.                 Skill increment

iii.              Reducing the cost of productivity

iv.              Knowledge advancement

v.                 Increasing the positive attitude changes

vi.              Heightening the staff morale.

However, the difference between these two (2) concepts can also be demonstrated in four (4) ways through the table below:

S/n

Question

Training

Development

1

Who

Non-managerial

Managerial

2

What

Technical and Mechanical

Theoretical and philosophical

3

Why

Specific job related purpose

General purpose knowledge

4

When

Short term

Long term

 

From the above illustration, this paper therefore sees training and development as formal and informal activities, which bring about change in the skills, knowledge and attitude of employees for the fulfilment of their individual career and organisational goals. They are processes of equipping employees of organisations with the most effective and efficient skills, knowledge, techniques abilities and methods of carrying out jobs with minimum cost.

2.4            EFFECTS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

The effects of training and development on employees and organisation include:

i.                   Making work a little easier for employees and energy one involved.

ii.                 Effectiveness and efficiency for higher productivity and profitability.

iii.              Reduction of tensions among employees, between supervisor and employers, and among supervisors and higher member of the management.

iv.              More practical methods of problems solving through computerisation

v.                 Quicker detection of potential problems

vi.              Staff might leave the firm after they finished their training

vii.            The expectations of employees from their jobs may increase in consequences of training. They may hope to be promoted or to receive higher pay. Where these expectations are not met, the employees may resign from the organisation.

Training activities depend on the policies and strategies of the organisation. Some organisations carry out the minimum of staff training and development because as a matter of their company policies, they prefer to recruit staff that are already trained or professionally qualified. They accept the to market rates for skilled staff and avoid the risk of recruiting fresh and unskilled workers.

2.5            IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Training and development is beneficial to the employee, the organisation and the society in many respects. Human resources constitute the inmate basis of wealth of nations; capital and natural resources cure passive factor of production. Human being they said are the active agencies who accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social, economic and political, organisation and any forward national development.

Clearly, 'A country which is unable to develop the skills and knowledge of its people and do utilize them effectively in the national economy will be unable to develop anything else' (HARBISON).

Organisations have to train and develop its employee because these activities are crucial to the success of modern organisation because of rapid changes in technology. Both activities play important roles in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of any organisation. The benefits of training have been looked at in terms of what efficient training procedure is expected to contribute to organisational growth as Immediate benefits of training to the employee; with respect to what efficient training procedure should contribute to the achievement of organisation goals.

Five Factors / Importance are Identify Namely: 

i.                   Reducing the costs of managing personnel activities as reflected in turn over, absenteeism, accidents, grievance and complaints

ii.                 Reducing of overhead and labour cost by reducing the amount of time required to perform the operations involved in goods and services and by reducing the time required to bring the inexperienced employee to acceptable level of job proficiency.

iii.              Reducing looses due to excess waste and to the production of detective products.

iv.              Reducing the general overall cost of administration of conducting a business by creating a psychological climate, which orients the activities of each employee towards achieving the major goals of the organisations.

v.                 Reducing the cost of efficiency services customers by improving time flow of goods or services from the industry to the customer.

In a recent work, SIBTHORPE (1991), present the nine (9) immediate importance/benefits of training to the employee. They are identified below:

i.                   The employee is given adequate opportunity to lean the duties and responsibilities of his job.

ii.                 It may be that a week planned; well occurred training programmes will impress employees with the feeling that a company has ready interest in his welfare.

iii.              Adequate training gives the employee a fair chance to experience success and avoid the frustrating experience of failure in performing the duties for which he is being paid.

iv.              The additional skills and knowledge can give way for promotion to jobs to greater responsibility.

v.                 An employee who is trained properly can reach higher level of piece rate or day rate; pay more quickly that can be poorly trained employee.

vi.              Such a programmes probably helps to reduce the feeling of strangeness and aloneness usually generally by being an alien or moral situation.

vii.            There is also some suggestive evidence that fatigue is reduced when the individual can perform at task in a skilled and habitual manner.

viii.         There is some evidence that accidents occur with less frequency to employees who are well trained.

ix.              In addition to satisfactory performance on the job, an employee may serve from an adequate training programme opportunity to learn additional skills and acquire knowledge and finally.

While discussing the importance/benefits of training and development, look at it in terms of benefits to the task, to the term and benefits to the individual. Under benefits to the tasks, factors such as coping with changes, increased productivity task expertise, reduction of mistakes and standardisation of work are identified.

With respect to benefits to the term, Sibthorpe (1991) holds the view than the 4(four) main areas where term work in a company can be improved through training and development. The first is RECRUITMENT; another area namely "EXCHANGING" is explained, as the ability of employees in different parts of the company to exchange of views and information is considered helpful in promoting a common identity in the company as well as social ties. This is said to general new solutions to problems.

The third benefit to the term has to do with what Sibthorpe has called "THE HAWTHORNE EFFECT" a situation where employees experience a serve of satisfaction if they feel they have selected for special attention. The fourth benefit to the term is identified as Motivation, Stimulation, Presentation, Skill And Knowledge

Motivation is experienced as a result of the sense of satisfaction which employee have, this often tends to stimulation which is considered as the ability of individuals to realise their role in the organisation. Training and development is also said to give an excellent opportunity for developing the skills of presentation through role plays, video recording and syndicate work, employees can be exposed to the experience of making prescription in a friendly atmosphere; finally, training programmes helps the individual employees to increase their knowledge.

Bennett, (1997) believes that training and development helps to achieve the following:

i.                   To improves worker's competence

ii.                 It equips employee for higher-level work

iii.              It makes the society enjoy a higher standard of services and better quality products

iv.              It enhances employee's morale

v.                 It increases the quality of output and performance

vi.              It provides a core of skill and knowledge for innovation and develops hidden talents.

vii.            It increases job satisfaction resulting in higher output less absenteeism and lower turnover of staff.

viii.         It creates a flexible and adaptable workforce and a reduced need for detailed supervision

ix.              It helps keep the organisation ahead of technical progress by providing the required responses to changing technology and job demands.

x.                 Lastly, training and development helps employees to do their work better, with less strain and with more employment.

WOLE ADEWUNMI (1982) sums up the benefits of training to the direct beneficiary, which is the individual. He believes that training helps the direct beneficiary primarily in increasing his/her job skills. A well-trained employee is not only efficient on the job but is confident and happy because he possesses what it takes to enjoy what he is doing. It also believes that at the same time, he becomes better paced to realise his maximum contribution, his capacities allow. This is said to increase his hopes for growth in the organisation and keep his morale up and high enough to generate efficient performance.

The general society is believed to benefit from training in two (2) ways, first by the resulting increase in the stock of skilled manpower available as well as efficient and courteously delivered service provided to customers.

2.6     DETERMINATION OF TRAINING NEEDS

Training is a continuous process, which is aimed at increasing the skill and knowledge of new as well as old employee to enable them to perform their job well.

Training involves learning the job by an employee. But sometimes, a manager may decide to set up a training programme because it is the popular thing to do and because other organisation are doing it. such a tendency is not good in the long term. Therefore, training programmes should be set up only after having a clear-cut objective in mind. Without objective it is useless and merely involves wastage money.

Determining who is to be trained and develop and the technique and content of training and development, is usually difficult. Save for the orientation or induction courses, selecting from existing employees and mounting training and development program for them do have for them is no easy task. Some organisations do have scheduled routine programs for their employees and handling specific duties. They have development politics containing the intentions and plans of action well articulated and based on principles and over all objectives. The polities further spell out the procedures and standards crucial to the smooth and profitable running of the organisations, giving direction to a commitment to continuous development

For training and development to be meaningful, both organisational and individual needs must determine it. It must enhance the performance of the employee as well as better his career prospects and ultimately contribute to the actualisation of the goals of the organisation. The trainer handling the programmes should also avoid putting trainees in programs that have no well articulated objective, carried techniques and proper evaluation strategy.

Four (4) procedures are used by the managers to identify the training needs:

i.                   Analysis of Job Requirement: Examining the appropriate skills necessary for performing different task. Workers without the skill became candidate for the training needs.

ii.                 Organisation Analysis: - Analysing the efficiencies of the organisation in meeting less goals. Where low performance or high labour turnover is noted in one unit, the members may require additional training.

iii.              Survey of Human Resources: Using questionnaire, interview or observation to know what problems workers face in their work place and how they are grouped to tackle such problems.

iv.              Performance Appraisal: This is the process of looking at they past performance of an employee, considering the suitability of the employee for promotion and salary review, and considering how the performance of the employee can be improved.

Therefore, wherever training needs are found, it is to lay down objective of training on the basis of needs or circumstances of the case.

2.7     PLANING TRAINING

Once the training needs have been identified, the training staff can commence the task of drawing up detailed plan about the training and submitting their draft plan for approval by the senior management. The training programmes can be formal or informal and can take place on –the –job or off- the-job. The on- the job training is very common especially when the work involved is not complex. The advantage include economy, transfer of training and production during training. The disadvantage is that on-the- job training is always haphazard.

The off- the- job training does no mean that the training is always done outside the company. The term simply means that the training is not part of every day activity. The major advantage is that the trainer is not distracted by the job requirement. The major disadvantage is cost and transfer of training. Training plans are usually designed to find answer to the following questions.

·        How is it going to be provided?

·        What sort of training to be provided?

·        When shall it be provided?

·        Who should attend?

·        Where is it going to hold?

·        At what cost?

2.8            TYPES AND METHODS OPF TRAINING:

There are three (3) broad approach / wages of training an employee. They are: on the-job training, off- the –job training and vestibule training. The choice of any method will defence on cost, number of person to be method, background of trainee, time available, depth of knowledge required, space available and other factors. A detailed analysis of each of these types of training and the methods in them is presented below.

1.       ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

          It occurs at the place of works it also includes verbal instruction and practical demonstrations, specialist short courses and briefly session (ORIEBEBOR and OYEDIJO, 1995). It contains and consists of all forms of training that are undertaken by the employee while he is still working. It involves teaching people how to do their work while they are actually doing it. Often, trainers are supervisors or managers who work in the same department as trainees, so that trainees can learn techniques while actually producing goods.

          The main attractions of on- the-job training are that there is no disruptions of work and no direct financial training costs. A problem however, is that on-the-job training creates in- breading. In addition, the workplace might not be the best environment in which to learn effectively. The main techniques or methods of on-the-job training are: -

(a) Apprenticeships/ Graduate Traineeships: Where newly employed staffs are placed under a senior manager for the period of his apprenticeship or traineeship after which he/she may be appointed to a position within the company.

(b) Acting Up and Assistantships: Where an employee understanding, acts as, and / or deputies for his boss. The main thirst of this method is to give the trainee "Special Assignment" which requires him to develop new experiences outside his normal schedule.

(c) Job Rotation: This is a merry-go-round "training technique which consist of a systematic programme of moving and inter changing employees from one job to another, where possible throughout the organisation for suitable periods of time. The employee is moved round various units until he becomes a generalist and can function in any of them.

2.       OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING:

Off-the-job training is undertaken externally in training centres or schools or in hotels or purpose-built residential training centre or in a section of the firm's premises reserved for this purpose.

          The main attraction off-the-job training is that it allows trainees to concentrate on the instruction given since trainees are freed from pressure and distraction of the workplace. The main problem of off-the-job is that it disrupts production. The commonest techniques or methods of off-the-job training are:

(a) Coaching: This is a one-to-one instruction where, typically, the instructor performs an operation, which is then imitated by the trainee. The instructor can vary the pace of the training to suit the capacity of trainee and can remedy mistake instantly.

(b) Lecture: These are transmission of sets of facts and opinions to a large audience, normally without the trainee's participation other than listening and taking notes. They consist of traditional classroom teaching supported by handout to reinforce and consolidate the material that is transmitted.

(c) Simulation: Here, real life problems are given to people to solve. Trainees act out samples of real business behaviour in order to practice how to make decision or work together as a group or both. The main techniques of job simulation are management game and role-playing.

(d) Programme Instruction: This is method whereby the trainee learns on his own from a prepared test or teaching machine. Computer-based training (CBT) user software package that contain instructional material plus exercise to test the trainees understanding of the topic concerned, most CBT follows the principles of programmed learning, whereby users are not allowed to pregress until they have mastered the previous section of the work, e.g by answering all test questions correctly. This enables trainees to work independently and at their own pace.

(e) Circuit Scheme: Here, manager visits each other organisations. The purpose is for each team of mangers to report bank on the differences in method; approach, cost and results observed and suggest issues about their own organisation, which might be investigated. It is easier to use this method in public sector than in the private sector where secrets are safeguarded against competitors.

(f) Conferences and Workshop or Group Training: Here, employees work out solution to common problems under an experienced conference leader. The problem is outline and the participations work through its solution. Group training may involve case studies (Simulation of real life problems) role playing or group discussion. Participants examine each other views and learn collectively through pooling ideas and experience. Often group training involves action learning whereby trainee themselves collect and evaluate the date needed to solve a real life problem, implement a solution and analyse the consequences.

3.                 VESTIBULE TRAINING: This training combines on-the job and off-the-job training methods. Workers are not moved out of their company rather, instructors are brought in from outside, including some mangers in the company.

2.9            METHOD OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT

Many development programmes will be dependent on focus. The focus of development method may be people oriented, job specific or oriented towards planning and conceptual learning. In short, development programmes can on-the-job development. The methods includes: (i) Coaching  (ii) Committee Assignment (iii) Job Rotation (iv) Assignment Position (v) Special Process e.g Conference leadership.

The off-the-job methods of management development includes:

i.        Classroom Course: Studying for higher degree in instructions of higher learning.

ii.       Special Programme: Short course offered by colleagues and consultancy firms.

iii.      Case Studies

iv.      Simulation (Business games)

v.       Human relation training

vi.      Sabbaticals and leave of absence

vii.     Group Training: Sometimes called sensitivity training.

          A technique of learning about one self and others by observing and participation in-group situation.

2.10   OBSTACLES TO TRAINING

Training, as importance as it is to all organisations, human resources development was been faced with a lot of problems which gives it a limitation, although, government and individual organisation are making effort to solve some of the problems. Generally, some of the problems are outlines below:

1        Fear of being bought over by other bigger organisation: Whenever organisation trains their employees, there is always this fear especially if the employee is a well skilled personnel. Therefore, organisation prefers not to waste their money training personnel that will soon be pushed away.

2        Financial Constrain: Due to fact that employers and organisations in general prefer to maximise their profit as the main aims of their establishment most organisation hardly see the need to make adequate budget for their staff training and development. Instead they recruit already trained personnel with experienced.

3        Staffing: Most of these organisations are all staffed; the permanent training staff may not be more than three (3) senior officers. But an ideal training division should be adequately stayed to provide good training to trainee. It is important that the trainer must be a professional in their fields.

4        The right personnel are not sometimes trained due to selfish interest. Nowadays, in most organisations, training is related to whom you know.

5        Space and machinery: Most organisations due to the problem of space and machinery have been a limitation to the kind of training that can be carried out. Also, machinery which go hand in hand with technological advancement is necessary for training.

          The McGehee W. and P.W. Thayer (1964) identified four (4) different obstacles to effective training. According to them, effective and efficient use of training by management has been blocked by:

i.                   Lack of information concerning the nature of the learning process.

ii.                 Failure of management to accept responsibility for training

iii.              Training being regarded as an end rather than a means to an end

iv.              Lastly, lack of knowledge and skill on the part of management in directing and executing training

In their publication on "management training for real". The Institute of Personnel Management (London) identified five (5) difficulties, which could be faced by people when they are trained on the job. They are itemised below:

i.        The pressure of time. It is believed that training in the real situation adds to what already feels like an overload of work.

ii.       People run into practical problems rather than hypothetical ones. This factor is not an obstacle to training, in fact it is one of the ways by which training could be strengthened.

iii.              There could be difference in the motivation of employees being developed. It is also believed that it cannot be assured that all managers have the long term good of the organisation as their prime aim or even that their wish for promotion is strong.

iv.              Many training exercise meet with little initial enthusiasm this point is not necessarily correct because there are cases where employee's struggle to be selected for training courses.

v.                 It is believed that most employees tend to prefer external course as opposed to on-the-job training. Again, this is not necessarily true for all employees.

2.11   TRAINING EVALUATION AND VALIDATION

The two concepts "Evaluation" and "Validation" can be easily confused. The idea of validation centres on the relevance and uniqueness of the contents or any training programme. Thus, a validation test of any training programme again to be concerned with finding out whether the contents of any training programme can be useful in tackling the problem for which the training programme has been drawn.

Evaluation, which is closely related to validation, seeks to discourse whether trainees have benefits from a training exercise. The evaluation phase is the third and final phase of training and development activities. No training or development exercise has ended if the training has not been evaluated. To trainee, the exercise ends when the trainer bids him farewell while he returns to his work. The truth is that the exercise at that point is yet to run its full course.

Evaluation is outstanding. There is often the tendency to equate the success of training and development programs to the member of participants recorded, facilities deployed including the resource persons used, and the money realised where applicable. But evaluation focuses on the achievement in terms of accomplishment of the objectives set for the exercise, the resultant increase in performance and behaviour. According to Kirkpatrick (1983), the evaluation system comprises measuring the participant's reaction, the participant's learning, change in the participant's behaviour and impact of the programme upon organisational effectiveness. It is fact difficult to carry out separate tests for training evaluation and validation since both are concerned with identical issues. For instance, three (3) issues that are relevant to any validation or evaluation exercise are as follows:

i.                   It is only when the validation of training, exercise has been done that an evaluation of it can be done.

ii.                 Determining whether or not the training procedure under consideration actually in the modification of time behaviour of the employees concerned.

iii.              Determining whether or not the outcome of the training procedures have any demonstrable relationship to the achievement of organisation goals.

Some methods of evaluating training programmes are:

Training can be evaluated at 4(four) levels:

i.        Reaction: In the first level of evaluation the participant's opinion, reactions and attitudes about the overall effectiveness of the programme are obtained. His reaction is on the content, length, and relevance of the learning the personality and general disposition of the trainer. The instrument used here is the questionnaire.

ii.       Learning: The second level of evaluation, which is measurement of what the participants learn, is difficult to do. The problem is however solved by administering a test on the participants.

iii.      Behaviour: The third level on the change of behaviour by participant is best done by observation and performance appraisal to know whether or not learning was transferred from training to the job.

iv.      Results: The fourth and final level, which is to know the organisational goals that the training achieved, may appear appealing theoretically and practically but it is not easily carried out. The possible goals include improvement in productivity, quality of services rendered job satisfaction, decreased turnover of personnel, accident and grievances etc.

          TRACEY (1968) has identified 6(sex) principles of evaluations:

i.                   Evaluation must be considered in term of purpose

ii.                 It must be co-operative

iii.              It must be continuous

iv.              It should be specific

v.                 It must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves, their practise and their products.

vi.              It must be based uniform and objective methods of standards.

If any training evaluation exercise is to be successful them it must be devoid at bias. It should be done as objectively as possible. To justified, training must make an impact on the performance of the trainees. To determine this, the post training result must be compared with the objectives experienced by management, trainer and trainees.

2.12   MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES IN ORGANISATION

Motivation is one of the greatest challenges facing mangers across the globe because it influences workers' performance and thus, the extent to which the organisation is able to achieve its objectives and justify its existence.

Motivation is derived from the Latin word-movere which means to move. Simply speaking, it is goal directed behaviour. It starts with deficiency (needs), which activates behaviour (drives) aimed at a goal or goals (that which can alleviate the deficiency)

Motivation is a general term used to denote the inter-relationship between needs and the fulfilment of these needs. These three (3) inter-dependent elements:  Needs, Drives and Incentives (or Goal) are thus central to a proper understanding of motivation.

The concern of managers right from time has been to ensure that workers put in their best in the places of work and that their best is good enough. In effect there are 2(two) major challenges: how to ensure that the workers are committed to the goals of the organisation and that they are working towards those goals to the best of their abilities. These two (2) challenges are complicated by the fact that the workers have different needs, which also vary with time.

Some managers hold their view that employees can be motivated to improve productivity by means of monetary incentives. The monetary scheme may take a variety of different forms e.g. individual bonus scheme, a profit showing plan, piece rate, a term bonus or group bonus scheme, a high rate system etc. A general problem of monetary incentives is that they are effective in the short run but not necessary cost effective on the other hand; money can motivate depending on the individual need for money. Money is not an end itself but a means of satisfying needs.

Another means of motivation is participation. Most behaviourists believe that job satisfaction guaranteed if superior invites subordinates to participate in planning decisions, which affect their work. The organisation should therefore match incentives with employee needs by offering what he needs or making him needs what the organisation can offer. It is also important to stress that motivation is a personal affairs; nobody can motivate anybody else. What managers can do is to provide conducive environment to enable the workers motivate themselves.

Maslow theory emphasis that motivating employee in an organisation, the manager should ascertain a staffs current position on the hierarchy so as to determine what would motivate him; the goal-setting theory urges us to ensures that goals are properly set and that they have motivational features; McGregor encourage manager to treat workers with more respect and trust by adopting the theory Y paradigm while Herzberg urges managers to pay attention to motivational factors and avoid KITA tendencies.

Beyond the theories however, motivating employee in organisation or getting the best from staff involves:

·        Recruiting / selecting qualified staff (Competence, traits, experience-oil matched with the job and environment.)

·        Tell them clearly what to do: The job description must be explicit and well understood. The goals should also be specific and motivational.

·        Tell them how to do it: Training to endow them with the skills, attitude and knowledge relevant to the job.

·        Equip the staff to do the job: Material resources, policies, commensuration authorities, etc.

·        Provide a conducive environment: Physical environment, organisational climate, leadership style, adequate stock of social capital, ambience and lighting

These five conditions can be seen as the foundation for effective motivational strategies. In their absence, no effort at motivation would yield fruit. But when they are taken care of, there is a high probability that the motivational efforts of the management would pay off.

2.13   MOTIVATION THEORIES AND EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEES

At difficult stages in the evaluation of management thought, manager subscribed to different models or theories of motivation. These theories can be arranged in the order in which they evolved, that is traditional models, the human relation model, and the human resources model.

The traditional model assumed theory and approach of leadership and considered human being to be motivated solely by monetary incentives. The human relation approach evolved with the report of Elton-Mayo in the Hawthorne Experiment. The research found that the social contract employee has at work were also important and that the bore-dorm and repetitive task were factors responsible for dissatisfaction in enterprise.

The researchers believe that motivation could be gained by acknowledging the social of workers and making them feels useful and important. As a result, greater attention was given to be use of informal groups in organisation. Researchers like LIKERT, MASLOW, A.H and HERZBERG Criticized human relations approaches as being simple and presented a more sophisticated approach to the manipulation of employee. They believed employee were motivated by many factors, not only were desire for satisfaction but also the need for achievement and meaningful work.

According to the human resources model, managers should not include workers to company with managerial objective by means of high wages or considerate treatment, but should share responsibility for achieving organisational and industrial reward with each person contributing on the basis of his interest.

CONTENT THEORY AND PROCESS THEORY OF MOTIVATION

Theories of motivation have been traditionally grouped into those that try to identify what motivate people (content theories) and those that concentrate on how motivational choices are made (process theories). Other emerging theories have been identified as control theories (concerned with the motivational impact of the degree to which workers perceive that they are in control of their lives or their jobs) and the Agency theories (which are concerned with the motivational value of the divergence or convergence of interest between the principles-the firm-and their agents-the workers). Some of these theories are discussed here under.

i.        Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow, A.H. 1943). The hierarchy of needs theory propounded by Abraham Maslow in 1943 is one of the earliest and most popular theories of motivation. It is also one of the content theories of motivation. Maslow posits that there are certain psychological needs of the individual that combine with other biological, national and situational factors to influence the behaviour of individuals. These baskets of needs, which he arranged in a hierarchy order are as follows:

·        The first is psychological needs such as hunger, man-sexual desire, sleepiness, thirst, activity needs. An individual becomes totally pre-occupied with these needs when they are deficient.

·        Second, safety need: freedom from danger and things that threaten human safety.

·        Third, love needs: generally, this refers to the needs for affiliation and belongingness and specifically the need for friends, spouses, children, parents and group membership. This particular need involves both giving and receiving,

·        Fourth: Esteem needs, this need has two dimension; internal-strength, achievement, adequacy, confidence, freedom, and external-reputation, prestige, recognition, importance appreciation. Satisfaction of this class of needs leads to self-confidence and a feeling of adequacy.

·        Fifth, the need for self actualisation: this is the need to become more and more of what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. (Maslow, 1943: 370). This needs was of great interest to Maslow and he devoted a great deal of effort to it. Its satisfaction is difficult to achieve and is indeed achieved by very few. Values espoused by self-actualisation people include truth, goodness, unit, uniqueness, justice, order, playfulness, self-sufficiency and meaningfulness. It is different from other needs in that it is never fully satisfied and it is self reinforcing the more you achieve it, the more of it you want.

Most discussions of Maslow theory are limits to these five (5) needs. There is however two (2), other which even Maslow himself, gave relatively little attention. These two are:

The Aesthetic needs: A craving for beauty in one's surroundings. Cognitive needs: These are the desire to know (being aware of reality, getting the facts, satisfying curiosity) and the desire to understand (the need to systemise, organise, analyse and seek relationships and meanings).

          Maslow divided these needs into deficiency and growth needs, with self-actualisation being the key growth need. Some writers term them lower and higher level needs.

ii.       HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY

          He asserted that there are hygienic factors, which do not motivate but can cause disaffection if not properly handled. These factors include salary, job security, workings conditions, fringe benefits security and relationship with peers. These are related to the job context. There is a second group of factors, which actually motivate. These include achievement, recognition, work itself and responsibility. He therefore suggested job enrichment as a strategy for increasing the motivators at work as against the hygienic KITA (Kick in the Ars) elements (Herezberg, 1969).

iii.      THEORY X AND THEORY Y (Douglas McGregor: 1957 And 1960).

          Macgregor theory X and theory Y was the outcome of a speech – THE HUMAN SIDE OF ENTERPRISE –which he delivered at the 5th convocation ceremony of MIT school of management in April, 1957. He eventually transformed his ideas into a book-his first and only book-which was published under the same title in 1960. He argues that management assumptions (implicit and explicit) about the control of human resources determine the quality of the enterprise and its management. He holds that existing assumptions were counter productive and goes on to present a new set of assumptions that would create an organisational climate conducive to human growth and development.

Theory X

McGregor reviewed extent paradigm, which dominated management thinking and practice and came out with the following propositions and assumptions, which he termed theory X. (McGregor, 1960:33), the proposition are that:

·        Management is responsible for organising the factors of production toward the attainment of economics goals

·        As it concerns people, management task is to channel their efforts to fits the needs of the organisation.

·        People would ordinarily be passive to organisation needs and it is the task of management to direct their activities.

Theory Y

A part from the first proposition, which is the same for X and Y, there are three (3) dramatically, opposed propositions for this theory Y:

·                     People are not naturally passive or resistant to organisation needs, they have become so, due to their experiences in the organisations.

·                     The motivation, potential, capacity for responsibility and readiness to work for organisation goals are inherent in people; management's responsibility is to recognise and develop these characteristics.

·                     The essential task of management is to manage affairs in such a way that people achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards organisational objectives. He then propose the following assumptions as the foundations of theory Y

   i.    The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

ii       The average human being learns under proper conditions, not only to accept best to seek responsibility

iii                Commitment to objective is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.

iv      The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organisation problem is widely distributed in the population. The theory Y assumptions promote a new paradigm, a paradigm of respect and dignity for the workers, a belief that he can direct his own effort toward organisation goals.

v     McClelland's Achievement Theory: This theory states that people are propelled by the need for achievement (N Ach) or the fear of failure, the need for power and the need for affiliation. Some people have high N'Ach while others do not. These who have high N'Ach are characterised by

·                  Moderate risk-taking

·                  Need for immediate achievement

·                  Satisfaction with accomplishment in itself

·                  Pre-occupation with tasks

·                  Concern for people and production

·                  Favourable view of subordinates.

·                  Optimism

·                  Open communication and interacts

The process theories are theories that address themselves principally to the motivational, process, rather than to specific individual needs or environment re-enforces. There are two (2) major process theories, namely equity theory and VIE (expectancy) theory.

vi.     Equity Theory (Adams J.S. 1961): This theory was developed and tested by Adams in 1963 when he was a research psychologist with General Electric Company in New York. The theory has its intellectual roots in the concepts of cognitive Dissonance (developed by Festingera L., 1957) and Distributive Justice (developed by Homans, G.C. 1961).  The three (3) major variables in the theory are:

·        Inputs: Various investments that an individual brings to bear on his work (education, intelligence, experience, effort, and training)

·        Outcomes: Various dividends that he receives from the work (pay, intrinsic rewards, status, fringe benefits, and seniority benefits)

·        Reference person: A person or group used as a yardstick in evaluating the equity of ones input-out come ratio.

vii.    VIE (expectancy) Theory

Championed by Victor Vroom, this is based on three concepts: Valence (the value attached to a reward); instrumentality (The probability that performance world lead to rewards) and expectancy (the expectation that efforts would lead to performance). Motivation thus occurs when a staff believes that his efforts would lead to performance, performance would lead to rewards and that the rewards would be valued. Motivational strategies, thus would be aimed at:

    i.        Match rewards to needs

  ii.       Match rewards to performance and let this be known

  iii.      Match people to the jobs

          For instance, a worker who wants promotion or an increase in salary has his valence to promotion or increase in salary. He can only be motivated if he has strong expectancy that promotion or increase in salary will satisfy his personal needs.

          On the other hand, if a worker is not concerned with promotion (valence is zero) or actively wishes to avoid promotion (valence is negative). He will not be motivated to do anything that can lead to promotion. The advantage of Victor Vroom's theory is that in comparison with Herzberg's ideas, a better distinction is made between an individual's goals and organisational goals.

2.14        SOME TRAINING INSTITUTION IN NIGERIA

(a)     The Centre For management Development (CMD)

The centre for management development is the operational aim of the Nigeria Council for Management Development (NCMD), whose existence since 1972 was formalised by Act 51 of October 1976. The need to establish the Nigeria council for management development and its operational aim, the centre for management development was first recognised (meeting of the national manpower board, which was held on October 20, 1965). At the meeting, it was observed that a major bottleneck in the effort to raise productivity was comparatively low quality of management at all level, it also noted that despite the existence of a considerable number and variety of facilities for management training, there was lack of effective co-ordination and the absence of a central source of information leading to wastage and unnecessary duplication of courses.

(b)     The Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON)

          The administrative staff college of Nigeria is located at Topo very close to Badagry in Lagos State. The origin of ASCON can be traced to February 1967 when the Federal Government of Nigeria mandated the Institute of Administration of the University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University) to conduct a study of the training needs of the federal civil service.

          ASCON was established by Decree No. 39 of 1973 with the following objectives:

i.                   To provide higher management training for public and private sectors of the Nigeria of the Nigeria economy.

ii.                 To conduct research into the problems of management and administration arising in different spheres of national life etc.

iii.      The college also provide consulting service to the public sector and on request can design and implement tailor made courses, delivered either in client location or in ASCON. Six major training strategies used by ASCON are academic strategy, laboratory strategy, activity strategy, action programme strategy, development strategy and organisation development strategy.

(c)      Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria

          The Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria (IPMN) is a professional management association, which makes a significant contribution to the training of personnel management practitioners as well as training and development specialist

(d)     The Nigeria Institute of Management (NIM)

          The Nigeria institute of management was established in 1961. It is a professional body for management and administrator from both the private and public sectors of the economy. The institute is involved in organisation of annual management conference, seminars, workshops and distinguished lecture series. Nigeria Institute of Management also deals with the preparation of training courses.

(e)      The Industrial Fund (ITF)

          The Industrial Fund is the recent of yet another effort by the Federal Government of Nigeria to ensure that adequate trained manpower are available to run industry and commerce.

          In summary, all the foregoing (above research) shows that a lot of work has been done by various scholars on the subject of training and development. They have all stress the importance of training and development in contemporary business organisation and that the training emphasis placed by any organisation on the training and development of employees is implicitly emphasis placed on productivity.

          Finally, in my own view I see training and development employment as been vital to any organisation's survival. Although various motivators, like incentives, monetary, recreational facilities have been put in place to boost workers productivity. Also effort should be made by the organisation to identify the training needs of workers and put them in positions in which they have the required skill.

          Training and development is not just training the workers about the job for which they are employed but also training them in readiness for any top management position and future held of the organisation.


REFERENCE

Ajijola, E. (1976), "Why People Work". Management in Nigeria.

Adam J.S (1965), "Equity Theory". Advances in Experimental Social

Psychological N/Y Academic Press 267-299.

Bajomo, K. (1984), "Preparing Employees for Task". A Training Facts

for Management Students Dipline Nigeria Limited.

Blanchard, Ken. (1991), "Management in Tough Times". Some Rules

for Survival Supervising Management.

Banjoko S.A (1996), Human Resources Management. An Expository

Approach, Lagos: Saban Publisher.

Cumming, M. (1980, "The Theory of Practice of Personnel

Management"; Heinemann, Lagos.

Carrell, M.R and F.E, Kuzmits (1982), Human Resources Management

Columbus, Ohio, Merril Publishing Coy, Bell and Howell Coy. P 212.

Chruden H.J and Jr. (1980), Personnel Management: Utilization of

Human Resources W. Sherman Ohio, South-Western Publishing.

Dale's, B.S (1980), "Personnel; The Management of People at Work".

Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. New York.

Davar, R.S (1950), Personnel Management and Industrial Relations in

India, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House, Pvt Ltd.

Eromosele, P.I. (1985), "The Functions of Personnel Management in

Organisation".

Flippo, Edwin B. (1984), "Principles of Personnel Management"

Mc Graw Hill Book Co. International Student Edition.

Frank, A.D. (1960), "Management Training Programmes".

Fansworth T. (1975), "Developing Executive Talent" London; McGraw

Hill.

Fashoyin, T. (1980), "Industrial Relation in Nigeria" London Longman.

Herzberg, F. (1968), One More Time: How Do You Motivate

Employees. Harvard Business Review, January, 2003.

Koontz H. and H. Weihrich (1993): "Management, A Global

Perspective". 10th Edition McGraw Hill.

Luthans, F. (2005), "Organisational Behaviour" (10th Ed.) Boston, Mc

Likert R. (1967), The Human Organisation" Its Management and Value,

New York Mc Graw Hill Publisher.

Maslow, A.H (1943), "The Theory of Human Motivation":

Psychological Review, July, Pp 370-396.

McGergor, Douglas. (1960), "The Human Side of Enterprise",

New York, McGraw Hill Book Company.

Muo, I.K. (1999), "The Nature, Scope and Challenges of Management".

Lagos, Impressed Publisher.

Meyer M.C. (1977), "Six Stages of Denominations, International                       Management" Vol 32.

Mc Gehee and P.W Thayer (1961), "Training in Business and Industry"

N/Y, John Wikely and Sons Inc.

Nwachukwu, C.C (1988), "Management Theory and Practice" Onitsha:

Africana FEP.

Obikoya, Jones O. (1996), "Essentials of Personnel Management" Ijebu-

Ode.

Oribebor and Oyedijo (1995), "Introduction to Personnel Management",

Ibadan Paramount Book.

Oyedijo, A. (1993), "Management Theory": Key Concepts in Business

Paramount Book Ltd Ibadan.

Stratuss G. (1971), "Union Policies Towards the Admission of

Apprentices" Reprint No. 375 Berkely CA. University of California.

Thomas H.S (1980), "Understanding Personnel Management".

Ubeku, A (1975), "Personnel Management in Nigeria", Ethiopia

Publishing Co. Benin City.

Wole Adewunmi (1982), "The Cost and Benefits of Industrial Training".

A Case Study of Nigeria Banking Industry.

 

 


CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     INTRODUCTION

Research methodology is a scientific, systematic and sequential process by which data are collected, analysed and interpreted with a view of drawing a valid conclusion thereof. Furthermore, research methodology is the technique by which data are collected and analysed in order to test the proposed hypothesis. It also seek to explain the methods, how the objective of the research work would be achieved; and also how the problems encountered during the course of the research will be solved.

This chapter outline will show the method used to obtain data and the sequence followed in the research work. It will also specify the various techniques used in carrying out this research to ensure that it provides a meaningful and unbiased result.

3.2            EMPLOYEES INVOLVEMENT IN TRAINING

Texaco Oil Nigeria Plc, attaches great importance to training and re-training of all categories of its employees. Regular routine meeting are put in place to ensure exchange of ideas between staff and management through a consultative committee, briefing sessions and company council meetings. The policy of the organisation recognises human resource as the most important assets of the organisation. It is therefore imperative to retain and motivate skilled worker through systematic training and development.

Training consequently, form part of individual development towards achieving excellence in performance of the day-to-day activities. Texaco oil Nigeria Plc has a training school at the head office in Lagos. Various in-house courses are also supplemented by external course for employees within and outside Nigeria. Texaco oil Nigeria plc encourages self-development schemes, which enable employees to improve themselves academically and professionally in their chosen careers.

It is the policy of the group that there is no discrimination in the employment, training and careers development of all categories of people including disables persons. The health and welfare of the work force are prime in all their activities. Employees enjoy free medical services at the group clinics located in Island, Apapa, Ikeja and Alapere by full-time medical doctors and qualified nurses. Besides; special arrangement are made with recognised hospital as retainers to provide medical attention to employees in locations where there are no clinics.

It is also the policy of the organisation to ensure that their work environment is safe and clean. Heavily subsidised canteen services are provided while recreational facilities are provided for in some parts of the country.

3.3            POPULATION OF STUDY

Population is the total number of people who live in a particular area. Also, population is a complete set of individuals and objects having some common features, which can be observed. For the purpose of this study, the finite population studies were the entire staff of the Texaco oil Nigeria plc; which comprised of both senior and junior staff. This helped to bring into response from different classes of staff from skills within the organisation.

3.4            SAMPLE AND SAMPLE DESIGN

Sample is an arbitrary subset of the population that is any collection of individuals from the population of study. It is partial reflection of the population from which it is drawn. The research could not be carried out to cover the entire staff of the company mainly because of the financial and time constrained. Therefore, for the purpose of simplicity in conducting this study a sample of 150 staff was chosen.

3.5     RESEARCH SAMPLE

          A sample may be defined as a collection of individuals, which form part of a class or population observed for the purpose of making scientific statement about the population.

          The total population studies comprised of administrative staff such as accountants, medical doctors, engineers and technologists as well as junior staff comprising technicians, engine crew, machine men, clerical and labourers, from all branches spread all over Lagos.

          This will help to bring in the response of different classes of staff from skills within the organisation. The same population can be divided into classes:

a.     Management

b.     Employees (senior and junior staff)

3.6     SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED

          Sampling is that part of population which is being investigated. In conducting this study, a combination of both quota and random sampling techniques were used.

          Random sampling involves a selection such that every single within the population has an equal chance of being chosen as a member of the sample. Quota sampling in it parts, involves breaking down the population into sub-population or groups, and from each group a certain number of units are selected to be included in the sample.

          The choice of this sample is to ensure that the two (2) elements present in the population are given adequate consideration in the same proportion in which they appear in the population. Selection of sample within each staff group for either questionnaire or interviews were carried out using random sampling techniques.


3.7     DATA COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION OF ANALYSIS

In collecting data for these projects both primary and secondary data sourcing were employed. Questionnaires, which constituted the primary source of data, were distributed among the member of staff. The questionnaire was constructed in simple English bearing in mind, it was meant for people, some of which have primary education only.

Question aimed at drawing information about the workers, sex,

age, qualification, remuneration, incentive, motivational, job security, management training and work conditions. In secondary data sourcing, various record were recommend, such as training records and personnel records.

3.8     INTERVIEW METHOD

          Interview will be conducted with officers whose responsibilities are related to areas of research study. These include the training and development managers, instructor and management trainees. The interview is aimed at collecting information about the procedure, methods, and functioning in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC in the implementation of their training programme. This was not easy at the beginning of this research because there was initial fear to pass information as well as getting to staff for intention. The initial fear of discussing the company affair with an outside was overtaken by time following my continuous pressure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1     DATA GATHERING ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

This chapter deals with the analysis and presentation of the data gathered in the course of the research. The research seeks to appraise the impact of training and development on the productivity of workers in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC. To do this, a sample of the population of TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC workers was taken and questionnaires were administered.

The questionnaire, comprising 2 (Two) items, was administered and 150 copies were administered on management staff and others on junior workers.

4.2     DATA PRESENTATION

TABLE 4.1:

Male

Female

Total

96

54

150

96

54

150

Source: Fieldwork



TABLE 4.2: AGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS

Items

Male

Female

Total

21-25

5

5

10

26-30

55

45

100

31-35

10

4

10

36-40

8

4

12

41-45

7

3

10

46& Above

6

2

8

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.1 shows that the male respondents constitute 64% of the workforce in the organisation. This shows that the numbers of males are greater than the number of females in the organisation.

Table 4.2: shows that the numbers of workers in age bracket 21-25 is 10. There are hundred (100) respondents in the age group 26-30, 12 respondents are in the age 36-40, 10 between 41-45 and 8 in the age group 46 and above. The table tells us something about the recruitment of the organisation a greater percentage of the workforce falls within 26-30-age bracket.

TABLE 4.3: EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS

Items

Male

Female

Total

WASC

16

6

22

OND/NCE

28

10

38

HND/BSc

29

28

57

M.Sc/PGD

23

10

33

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.3: shows the respondents distribution by qualification. Here, we observe that those with HND/B.Sc, BA, that is those with first degree, have the highest frequency. This shows that the company place an emphasis on minimum qualification at a first degree at the entry point for management trainees.

TABLE 4.4:        MARITAL STATUS

Items

Male

Female

Total

Single

36

16

52

Married

60

38

98

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.4: Shows that there are more married workers than the single ones among the workforce.

TABLE 4.5:        TENURE IN ORGANISATION

Items

Male

Female

Total

Less than 1 year

3

2

5

1-5

23

10

23

6-10

30

20

50

Over 10 years

40

22

62

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.5:   It indicates the length of service of workers from which it can be seen that those who had put in 10 years and above have the highest number. Those who had put in between 6 and 10 years confirmed this further because they have the second highest number. This shows that the rate of the employment of fresh candidates into the organisation is very low. Those who had put in less than 1 year have a small number of 5.

TABLE 4.6:        ATTENDANT OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES

Items

Male

Female

Total

Once

3

2

5

Twice

15

10

25

Thrice 

25

25

50

Several times

53

17

70

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.6:   Shows that a greater percentage of the workforce in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC have undergone training several times.

TABLE 4.7:        TYPE OF TRAINING

Items

Male

Female

Total

Clerical typist

4

9

13

Technical

34

18

50

Supervisory

42

21

63

MT development

16

8

24

Total

96

54

150

 

Source: research survey 2008

          A great percentage of the workforces have gone through supervisory training. This is followed by technical and management development respectively.

          This is in accordance to Reily (1979) who believe in supervisory training more than any other kind of training.

TABLE 4.8:        WHERE TRAINING WAS ATTENDED

Items

Male

Female

Total

On the job

28

22

50

Off the job (with company)

24

14

38

Off the job (outside Nigeria)

22

10

32

Off the job (overseas)

22

8

30

Total

96

54

250

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.8: Shows that TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC prefer to train workers on their present job to improve their skill on such job. Reily also support on-the-job training. He sees on-the-job training as consciously providing instruction. Fashoyin also agreed that on-the-job training is the most widely used method. This is attributed to the simplicity of such method and thus they costless.

TABLE 4.9:        WHEN TRAINING WAS LAST ATTENDED LAST

Items

Male

Female

Total

Less than 1 year

20

15

35

1-2 years

30

17

47

3-4 years

26

12

38

5 and above

20

10

30

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.9:   Shows the regularity of training conducted for workers. It was observed that those who had undergone training courses 1-2 years have the highest frequency outcome of 47 while those who attended training last 5 years and above only 30.

          This confirmed Wole Adewunmi 1982, ascertion that training and retraining not only made employee efficient on the job but also gives him confidence on the job. This is said to increase his hope for growth in the organisation and also keep his morale up to increase productivity.

TABLE 4.10:      EXTENT OF SUCCESS OF TRAINING

Items

Male

Female

Total

Very large extent

40

30

70

Large extent

29

12

41

Some extent

10

8

18

Little extent

17

4

21

Total

96

54

150

Source: Fieldwork, 2008 (questionnaire)

Table 4.10: Confirms that training and development have great effect on the worker in terms of enhancing their performance and facilitate their task. All respondents agreed that training helped to know and perform their duties well.

TABLE 4.11:      EQUIPMENT IN THE TRAINING CENTRE

Items

Male

Female

Total

Well equipped

48

24

72

Averagely equipped

40

20

60

Not equipped

8

10

18

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008.


TABLE 4.12:      EQUIPMENT FOUND AT WORK PLACE

Items

Male

Female

Total

Most of them

48

28

76

Some of them

44

20

64

A few of them

4

6

10

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey, 2008.

TABLE 4.13:      HOW DO YOU ASSESS THOSE TRAINING FACILITIES

Items

Male

Female

Total

Very adequate

48

28

76

Adequate

44

22

66

Inadequate

4

4

8

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey, 2008.

Table 4.11, 4.12 and 4.13 suggest that the training centres are well equipped. Both well-equipped and adequately equipped responses have a combined total of 132. However, the inadequate frequency count of 8 for not well equipped shows that some workers are still dissatisfied with the level of facilities obtainable in the organisation. There are stillrooms for improvement.

In table 4.12, 76 responded positively that most of such facilities are found at their work place which signifies that their workers practise what they learnt and the training are relevant to their duties / tasks.

Table 4.13: shows how the trainees / workers feel about the available of facilities of training and gain how these facilities are able to meet their needs.

In the table 4.13, 76 respondents indicated that the facilities were very adequate, 66 said they were adequate while 8 respondents believed just inadequate.

TABLE 4.14

(Question 15): Back on your job after training, could you describe how you did your work?

TABLE 4.14:      RESPONSES TO QUESTION 15

Items

Male

Female

Total

Better than before

96

54

150

Same as before

-

-

-

Below the previous standard

-

-

-

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

TABLE 4.15:      IMPACT OF TRAINING ON PRODUCTIVITY

Items

Male

Female

Total

Yes

79

44

123

Partially

17

10

27

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

TABLE 4.16:      IMPACT OF THE TRAINING ON ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH

Items

Male

Female

Total

Very useful

85

48

133

Fairly useful

11

6

17

Not useful

-

-

-

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.14, 4.15 and 4.16 shows that training and development are very vital to the organisation in that a combined total of 150, which constitute the whole of the sample that responded, agreed both factors are very useful and necessary in enhancing organisational growth and have contributed to individual worker's improved productivity. They suggest that training and development have effective means of enhancing productivity and maintaining corporate growth.

It can be observed that the training and development program designed by the organisation contributes to the present state of employees' performance within the organisation.

According to Hinrichs (1776), training and development leads to increase performance organisational growth. The result of the sample has confirmed this.

TABLE 4.17:      SHOULD ORGANISATION REVIEW IT TRAINING PROGRAM

Items

Male

Female

Total

Yes

58

40

98

No

38

14

52

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.17: Shows that most of the workers are satisfied with the training program in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC as workers as still dissatisfied with the training program. This could be as a result of lack of knowledge and skill on the part of management in directing and executing. Fashoyin suggest that a number of trade off must be made when making the choice of techniques and putting a training program together.

TABLE 4.18:      PROVISION OF RECREATIONAL FACILITIES

Items

Male

Female

Total

Strongly agree

78

40

118

Agree

18

14

32

Disagree

-

-

-

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

TABLE 4.19:      IMPACT OF MONETARY REWARD ON PRODUCTIVITY

Items

Male

Female

Total

Strongly agree

40

30

70

Agree

38

14

52

Disagree

18

10

28

Total

96

54

150

Source: Research survey 2008

Table 4.18 shows that workers see recreational facilities as motivator and as a sense of belonging to the organisation. This in turn boost productivity since it will make them satisfied with their job. 118 respondent strongly agree to provision of recreational facilities.

Table 4.19: Reflects workers opinion on monetary reward as a motivator. Though 70 respondent strongly agreed to money as a motivator, this is followed by 52 respondent who also agreed that money is a motivator. 28 respondents believed that money is not a motivator. This could be workers who see their participation in planning decisions as motivator or workers who are motivated by their sense of achievement, job enlargement to avoid boredom and so on.

TEST OF HYPOTHESIS

Based on the data collected an analysed, the relationship between training, development and job performance (growth) in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC, will be shown statistically.

"To make decision by association, attempt will be made to predict one variable on the basis of another variable. "The variable, that is the basis for prediction is called the independent variable and growth or performance is the dependent variable".

IMPACT OF TRAINING ON PRODUCTIVITY

TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS 1

Ho:     There is a significance relationship between training and development and workers productivity.

Hi:     There is no significant relationship between training and development and organisational effectiveness.

          In testing this hypothesis, table 15 would be used in testing the impact of training on productivity.

          The observed value are the addition of the number of responses from male and female while the expected value is derived by dividing total number of responses by number of rows i.e 150/2 = 75.

TABLE FOR CALCULATED VALUE OF CHI-SQUARE = X2

Responses

O

E

O- Σ

(O- Σ)2

(O-E)2/ Σ

Yes

123

75

48

2304

30.72

Partially

27

75

48

2304

30.72

 

Σ(O- Σ)2/Σ      =       61.44

Σ(O- Σ)2/Σ    =       X2c     =       61.44

Degrees of freedom        =       (n-1)

Where n      =       Number of rows   =       2

Df               =       2-1    =       1

Value at Df           =       1  = 3.841   = X2t

From the foregoing, it could be seen that the calculated value X2c = 61.44 > X2t   =          3.841. Hence, we accept Ho at 5% level of significance, which shows there is a relationship between training and development and workers productivity.

TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS II

          Table 16 would be used in testing the relationship between training and development and organisation growth, that is, Hypothesis 2.

          The observe values are the addition of the number of responses from male and female while the expected values is derived by finding total number of responses by number of rows. i.e. 150/2     = 75.

Responses

O

E

O- Σ

(O- Σ)2

(O-E)2/ Σ

Very useful

133

75

58

3364

44.8533

Fairly useful

17

75

58

3364

44.8533

 

Σ(O- Σ)2/Σ    =       89.7   =       X2c

Degrees of freedom        =       (n-1)

Where n      =       Number of rows   =       2

Df               =       2 - 1  =       1

Value at Df           =       1  = 3.841   = X2t

Since X2c  = 85.7 > X2t  =   3.841, we accept Ho at 5% level of significance which shows that there is a relationship between training and development and organisation effectiveness.

Training and development has contributed to the growth of TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC. It has led to increase in the productivity of workers. As a result of training of workers, it has led to more satisfied workers performances and increase in their expertise on their job and this has reduced the turnover, rail, absenteeism, etc in the organisation.


CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, IMPLICATION, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1     SUMMARY

          Training and development is an important aspect of organisational management because it is a function that seeks to make available for the organisation, skill that are necessary to its effective performance. TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC, apparently believes in this and therefore formed and execute a training policy whose aim is to provide it with the skill necessary to its functioning effectively and efficiently.

          The company has laid down procedures as to the identification of training needs, selection of trainees, trainers and training programmes. Alot of training go within the organisation both formally and informally

          All along, TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC has been conscious of and has appreciated the achievement of corporation goals and objectives. The organisation appreciate and carries out progressive training and development for every level of its employee continually because, as had already been noted, these programmes aim at removing performance deficiencies, positioning employees to perform at optimally desired level and increasing employees commitment can contribute to turnover and reduction in absenteeism, thus increasing the organisations corporate performance and productivity.

          From the study done, there are indications that without doubt, training and development have contributed their own quota towards the present level of Texaco Oil Nigeria Plc. These findings have supported the outcome of the research conducted by experts in the field of training and development.

5.2            IMPLICATION

It needs to pointed that the human resources and training department through performing creditably now, needs to look into the issue of proper assigning of trained workers into roles for which they are trained. This is because, some workers revealed that though they had undergone training and development programmes, they were yet to come into position where they can apply the knowledge acquired.

The research result also revealed that a lot of importance should be attached to training of workers since it has a positive impact on employee's productivity and organisational growth.

5.3            RECOMMENDATION

In the light of the observations in the study, the following recommendations are preserves: -

i.                   Performance appraised can be used along with job analysis for the determination of training needs. Therefore periodical results of performance appraised should point out those staff that needs training from time to time.

ii.                 Management should ensure that the amount of money allocated to training staff meet their training programme objective. This can be done by proper monitoring and evaluation process. Through evaluation of the training, results is carried out writing a specified time.

iii.              Finally, a continuous revision of the training programmes should be carried out especially those that are based on system approach to content development in which feedback becomes central in the content development process.

5.4            CONCLUSION

One can conclude that the company training plans and programmes are in consonance with its training policy, which aims to improve employee performance, to achieve a steady and fast rate of technological knowledge, adequately reward and retain staff commitment in a critical and continuous operation; improve working condition and job satisfaction and above all, to increase productivity and achieve organisational goals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adam, J.S (1965), "Equity Theory". Advance in Experimental Social Psychology N/Y Academic Press 267-299.

Armsrong (1992),  "Strategies for Human Resources Management", London, Kogan.

Ajijola, E (1976), "Why People Work". Management in Nigeria.

Bajomo, K (1984), "Preparing Employees for Task". A Training Facts for Management Student.

Banjoko, S.A (1996), Human Resource Management. An Expository Approach, Lagos Saban Publisher.

Blanchard, K (1991), "Management in Tough Times". Some Rules for Survival Supervising Management.

Cumming, L.L (1980), "The Theory of Practice of Personnel Management": Heinemann Lagos.

Carrell, M.R and F.E, Kuzmit (1982), Human Resources Management. Columbus, Ohio Memi Publishing Coy; Bell and Howell Coy. Pg 212.

Chruden H.J and Jnr. (1980), Personal Management: Utilization of Human Resources. W. Sherman. Ohio South-western Publishing Coy: 1980 pg 187.

Dale's, B. (1985), "Personnel Management of People at Work".

Davar, R.S (1950), Personnel Management and Industrial Relation in India, New Delhi Vikas Publishing House, Pvt Ltd.

Eromosele, P.L (1985), "The Functions of personnel Management in Organisation".

Fashoyin, T. (1980), "Industrial Relation in Nigeria". London Longman.

Fansworth, T. (1975), "Developing Executive Talent". London Mc Graw Hill.

Flippo, E.B (1984), "Principles of Personnel Management" McGraw Hill Book Co. International Student Edition.

Frank, A.D (1960), "Management Training Programmes".

Gungan, I. (1978), "Approaches to Training and Development".

Herzberg, F. (1968): One More Time": How Do You Motivate Employee's. Harvard Business Review, January 2003.

Jones O. Obikoya (1996), "Essential of Personnel Management"

Koontz H. and H. Weihrich (1993): "Management, A Global

Perspective". 10th Edition McGraw Hill.

Likert, R. (1967): The Human Organisation: Its Management and Value, New York McGraw Hills Publisher.

Luthans, F. (2005): "Organisational Behaviour" (10th Edition) Bostor, McGraw Hill.

Maslow, A.H (1943): "The Theory of Human Motivation". Psychological Review, July Pp 370-396.

McGregor, D. (1960),"The Human Side of Enterprises", New York, Mc Hill Book Company.

Meyer, M.C. (1977), "Six Stages of Denomination" International Management. Vol 32.

McGehee and P.W Thayer (1961), "Training in Business and Industry" N/Y, John Wiley and Son Inc.

Mou, I.K (1999), "The Native, Scope and Challenges of Management": Lagos, Impressed Publish.

Nwachukwu, C.C (1988), "Management Theory and Practice". Onitsha: Africana. Fep.

Oribebor and Oyedijo (1995), "Introduction to Personnel Management", Ibadan Paramount Book.

Oyedijo, A. (1993), "Management Theory": Key concepts in Business Paramount Book Ibadan.

Steve, A.I (2008), "Training and Development of Human Resource". Fundamental of Human Resources Management in Nigeria Edited by I.B Bello Iman, B.O Oshionebo and S.A Ojeifo.

Stratuss, G (1971), "Union Policies Towards the Admission of Apprentices". Reprint No. 375 Berkely C.A University of California.

Thomas H.S (1980), "Understanding Personnel Management".

Ubeku, A. K (1975), "Personnel Management in Nigeria", Ethiopia Publishing Co. Benin City.

Wole A. (1982), "The Cost and Benefit of Industrial Training". A Case Study of Nigeria Banking Industry.

 

 


Business Administration Department

Faculty of Management Science

Olabisi Onabanjo University

Ago – Iwoye,

Ogun State.

 

Dear Sir/Ma,

QUESTIONNAIRE

          I Oyebanjo Segun .T. is a final year student of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State of Business Administration (CESAP Degree) currently conducting a research on "The Effect of Training and Development on Workers Productivity". Texaco Oil Nigeria Plc as a case study as part of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) of the university. I shall be grateful if you can furnish me with the required information via this questionnaire. Your responses shall be kept strictly confidential and used purposely for this research work only.

Thanks for your co-operation.

 

Yours faithfully

OYEBANJO S.T.

SECTION A

Introduction:- Please tick right or mark 'X' in the appropriate (box)es

1.       Sex:  

(a) Male       (    )  (b) Female    (     )

2.       Age (in years):

(a) Below 21         (   )    (b) 21-25     (     )

(c) 26-30               (    )   (d) 31-34      (     )

(e) 36-40               (    )  (f) 41-45     (     )

(g) 46-50              (    )

3.       Educational Background:       

(a) First school leaving certificate  (   )     (b) WASC              (    )

(c) OND/NCE                              (   )   (d) HND/B.Sc/B.A.ED (    )

4.       Marital Status:    

(a) Married           (     )            (b) Single   (     )  

5.       How long have you been in the organisation?

(a) Less than 1 year       (   )    (b) 1-5 years         (    )    

(c) 6-10 years                 (    )    (d) Over ten years  (    )

6.       How many times have you undergone training?

(a) None at all      (    )   (b) Once      (    )

(c) Twice              (    )   (d) Thrice     (    )

(e) Several time    (    )

7.       What kind of training was it?

(a) Clerical typist           (   )    (b)Technical                   (    )

(c) Supervisory    (    )     (d) Management (    )

8.       Where was the training done?

(a) On the job  (  )          (b) Off-the-job      (     )

(c) Off-the –job (out of the company)  (     )        

(d) Off-the-job (within the company)   (    )

9.       When did you attend the last training?        

(a) Less than 1 year       (   )    (b) 1-2 year          (     )  

(c) 3-4 years                   (    )   (d) 5 and above    (     ) 

10.     To what extend did the training programmed achieve the purpose

for which was intended?

(a) Very large extent      (    )   (b) large extent     (    )

(c) Some extent              (    )   (d) With extent     (    )   

(e) No extent                  (    )

11.     How equipped was / were the training canters (s) in terms of training facilities?

(a) Well equipped          (    )   (b) Average equipped     (    )

(c) Not adequate   (     )

12.     Do you have the equipment used during your training at your work place?

(a) Most of the them      (    )   (b) Some of them          (    )

(c) A few of then            (    )    (d) None of them  (    )  

(e) I don't know             (    )

13.     How do you assess those training facilities?       

(a) Very adequate (   )   (b) Just adequate (     ) 

(c) Inadequate       (    )

14.     On the course itself, how would you rate the following?        

                                                        Very   Average  Bad

(a) The course instructors                        

(b) The course materials

(c) What you learnt

(d) Method of instruction

(e) Sitting arrangement at the venue

(f) Transport to/from venue     

15.     Back on your job after training could you describe how you did your job?        

(a) Better than before            (     )     (b) Same as before         (    )

(c) below the parent standard  (     )             (d) No idea                    (     )

16.     How easy or difficult has is been for you to practice what you learnt during training?

(a) Very easy        (    )   (b) Easy                (    ) 

(c) Difficult                    (    )   (d) Very difficult  (     )    

(e) Undecided       (    )

17.     Do   you think what you've learnt was of use to the company? 

(a) Very useful       (   ) (b) useful              (    )    

(c) Not very useful  (    )   (d) Not useful     (   )  

(e) Note relevant   (    )

18.     Would you say that training has contributed positively and greatly to enhance your productivity in your organisation?  

(a) Yes        (     ) (b)   No         (     )

(c) Partially (    ) (d) Don't know  (     )

19.     What do you think of training and development programmed in terms of enhancing organisation growth?    

(a) Very useful and necessary  (    )   (b) Fairly useful    (    )   

(c) Not useful                           (    )   (d) Not necessary           (     )

20.     Who determines the training need in your organisation?

(a)The staff to be trained         (    )   (b) The training departments      (    )

(c) The supervisor of the staff to be trained  (    )  (d) Don't know  (    )

21.     What training and development method have you under stand?

(a) On the job training             (   )    (b) Lectures                   (   )

(c) Apprenticeship training     (   )    (d) Conference               (    )

(e) Job rotation                        (   )   (f) Under study/coaching   (    )  

(g) Sensitivity training             (    )   (h) Case studies               (    )     (i) Others (please specify)          (    )

22.      Which method (s) do you prefer…………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………..

23.     Where you ever asked if training has improved your performance?

(a) Yes        (    )   (b) No         (     )

24.     Would you recommend that the organisation review its training and development programs? 

(a) Yes        (     )  (b) No         (     )

SECTION B

25.     Is there a company bus service that operates to ease the transportation of workers to and from work place?

(a) Yes        (    )   (b) No         (     )

26.     If your answer to question 25 is negative. Will you be happy if the management provides a bus for workers?  

(a) Strongly agree (    )   (b) Agree                        (    )   

(c) Disagree          (    )    (d) Strongly disagree     (    )

27.     Are there canteen facilities for workers in your organisation?  

(a) Yes        (    )   (b) No         (    )

28.     Does monetary reward ever motivate you to perform better in your work place?       

(a) Strongly agree (    )   (b) Agree                        (   )

(c) Disagree          (     )   (d) Strongly disagree     (    )


THE EFFECTS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON WORKERS PRODUCTIVITY

(A STUDY OF TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC.)

 

 

BY

BOLUJO OLUSEGUN ANTHONY

MATRIC NO: 021001173

 

 

AN ORIGINAL ESSAY SUBMITTED TO THE

DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING,DISTANCE LEARNING INSTITUTE(DLI), IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HON.) DEGREE IN FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,

UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS,

LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA.

 

DECEMBER, 2008


CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this research project was carried out by BOLUJO OLUSEGUN ANTHONY with Matric. No: 021001173 of the Department of ACCOUNTING, Faculty of Business Administration,(DISTANCE LEARNING INSTITUTE),University of Lagos under my supervision of Mr Olaoye

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Mr. OLAOYE               Date

(Project Supervisor)

 

 

 

 

 


DEDICATION

This study is humbly dedicated to the Almighty God, the creator of the universe for all that he his and for all He has done for me and most especially for bringing me this far, am gratefully and I declared him Lord over my life forever.

          I also dedicate this research study to my precious and loving wife Mrs T.E Bolujo for her care and understanding .


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I have all the reason to say thank you precious daddy "Emmanuel', I am overwhelmed with your tender mercies, love, favour and protection over the years. God Almighty I am grateful, words won't say it all.

Firstly, to my humble supervisor Mr OLAOYE .His  and uidance. Indeed you are truly a father also to other lectures who in one way or the other as impact my life in the course of my academic pursuit.

My thanks also go to my dear Mum for her motherly love and support, financially, morally, materially and above all for her prayers. Mum, thank you for believing in me and for giving me the precious opportunity to attend this great institution and most especially for your sacrifices. God bless you and grant you the grace to eat the fruit of your labour with long life spent in sound health, comfort and unending joy. I LOVE YOU MUMMY.

          My siblings can't be exempted from the well-wishers I thank you all for your support, bully and motivation. Funmilayo- thank you for pushing me to bring out the hidden strength, Opeyemi- what will I do without your inspiring and motivational talks and for bulling me to work harder, you mean so much to me. Emma. I love you. Thank you all for the assurances and hope you have in me. You are the best.

          I also want to thank all the man of God whom God as been using for me through their inspiring words, spiritually and for making me see myself in the light of Gods word. I LOVE YOU SO MUCH. Am proud of you all.

My thanks to the Archbishop of province of Lagos church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion). His grace the most Rev. (Dr.) Ephraim Adebola Ademowo for your prayer and financial support also go to entire family of the Ven. V.S Adenugba's home and abroad, Chief. Mrs. M. Agboola, (L.C.C.I) Chief Mrs. Mosumola Otaiku, Mr. A.A. Banjo, (Centage Plaza), Deacon. Mrs. Yinka Ajayi, Mrs Titi Awokoya and also Emmanuel Anglican Chapel, Ketu for their prayers, support, love and counsel-Am grateful.

          I will not fail to mention some people who has made my stay in the school a memorable one, the list is numerous but I will mention few and it goes forth –Mrs Bodunrin Opeyemi aka Big Yemo for her motherly care and affection, Sewa Odubote, Sholexzy, Favour, Taiwo Taiwo,Agunbiade Olayinka, also Labake Adekoya, Olaitan, Biola, Biyi, Wale Bude, Mojoyinola Olojo Kosoko, Adelana Oluwasegun (Cruise)  and many more.

          I will not fail to mention the OYEMA MUSIK CREW and my entire fans home and abroad…I LOVE YOU.

My final thanks goes to my humble self for my steadfastness and commitment to my academics, career and for relying solely on God to take me through it all. Doxolodgy.

 

 

Oyebanjo Segun T.

June 2008


ABSTRACT

          In order for organisation to survive whether public or private enterprises they need certain inputs, which are referred to, as factors of production out of all these factors of production are land, labour, capital and entrepreneur. Labour remain unique. The uniqueness of labour, which to some extent includes even the fact that in order to be able to make use of all the other factors of production, labour power has to be activated.

          One can hereby that to achieve a steady and improve employee performance, adequate reward, training and retaining staff with commitment aid working condition and improve job satisfaction and above all, increase workers productivity and achieve organisational goals.  Hence there is a need for training and development of workers to put together all these factors in order to attain organisational objective.

 

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                            vi

Table of Contents                                                                             vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background to the Study                                                                  1

1.2            Statement of the problems                                                      7

1.3            Objectives of the Study                                                           8

1.4            Research Questions                                                                 10

1.5            Research Hypothesis                                                               11

1.6            Significance of the Study                                                                  12

1.7            Scope of the Study                                                                            13

1.8            Historical Background of Texaco Oil Nigeria Plc                    14

1.9            Definition of Terms                                                                 15

References                                                                                         18

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1            Introduction                                                                                      19

2.2            Conceptual Framework of Training and Development           21

2.3            Different Between Training and Development                        35

2.4            Effects of Training and Development                                               38

2.5            Importance of Training and Development                               39

2.6            Determination of Training Needs                                            46

2.7            Planning Training                                                                    49

2.8            Types and Method of Training                                                         50

2.9            Methods of Management Development                                   55

2.10       Obstacles to Training                                                              56

2.11       Training Evaluation and Validation                                        60

2.12       Motivating Employees in Organisations                                 63

2.13       Motivation Theories and Effects on Employees                      67

2.14       Some Training Institute in Nigeria                                          78

Reference                                                                                          83


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Introduction                                                                                      87

3.2            Employees Involvement in Training                                        87

3.3            Population of Study                                                                89

3.4            Sample and sample Design                                                     89

3.5            Research Sample                                                                     90

3.6            Sampling Technique Used                                                       91

3.7            Data Collection and presentation of Analysis                                   92

3.8            Interview Method                                                                    92

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1            Data Gathering, Analysis and Presentation                                      94

4.2            Data presentation                                                                    94

4.3            Statistical Analysis of Data and test of Hypothesis                          96

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1            Summary                                                                               111

5.2            Implications                                                                                    112

5.3            Recommendation                                                                   113

5.4            Conclusion                                                                             114

Bibliography                                                                          115


CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this research project was carried out by Oyebanjo Segun T., Matric No: CSB 0109938 of the Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State under my supervision.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Mr. B.O. Oshionebo                                                               Date

(Project Supervisor)

 

 

 

 

 


DEDICATION

This study is humbly dedicated to the Almighty God, the creator of the universe for all that he his and for all He has done for me and most especially for bringing me this far, am gratefully and I declared him Lord over my life forever.

          I also dedicate this research study to the loving and precious memory of my late sister Oluwakemi and my late father Mr. Oyebanjo J .O, for his wise counsel and above all for bringing me into this world, I am proud of you daddy, may your soul rest in perfect peace. Amen.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I have all the reason to say thank you precious daddy "Emmanuel', I am overwhelmed with your tender mercies, love, favour and protection over the years. God Almighty I am grateful, words won't say it all.

First, my humble supervisor Mr B.O. Oshionebo for his support and guidance and other lecture who in one way or the other as impact my life in the course of my academic pursuit.

My thanks also go to my dear Mum for her motherly love and support, financially, morally, materially and above all for her prayers. Mum, thank you for believing in me and for giving me the precious opportunity to attend this great institution and most especially for your sacrifices. God bless you and grant you the grace to eat the fruit of your labour with long life spent in sound health, comfort and unending joy. I LOVE YOU MUMMY.

          My siblings can't be exempted from the well-wishers I thank you all for your support, bully and motivation. Funmilayo- thank you for pushing me to bring out the hidden strength, Opeyemi- what will I do without your inspiring and motivational talks and for bulling me to work harder, you mean so much to me. Emma. I love you. Thank you all for the assurances and hope you have in me. You are the best.

          I also want to thank all the man of God whom God as been using for me through their inspiring words, spiritually and for making me see myself in the light of Gods word. I LOVE YOU SO MUCH. Am proud of you all.

My thanks His Grace Bishop Of Lagos Dioceses Ademowo also go to entire family of the Ven. V.S Adenugba's home and abroad, Chf. Mrs M Agboola, (L.C.C.I) Chief Mrs. Mosumola Otaiku, mr. A.A. Banjo, (Centage Plaza), Dec. Mrs. Ajayi, Mrs Titi Awokoya and also Emmanuel Anglican Chapel, Ketu for their prayers, support, love and counsel-Am grateful.

          I will not fail to mention some people who has made my stay in the school a memorable one, the list is numerous but I will mention few and it goes forth –Mrs Bodunrin Opeyemi aka Big Yemo for her motherly care and affection,Sewa Odubote, Sholexzy,Favour,Tiawo Tiawo,Agunbiade Olayinka, also Labake Adekoya, Wale Bude, Mojoyinola Olojo Kosoko, Adelana Oluwasegun (Cruise)  and many more.

          I will not fail to mention the OYEMA MUSIK CREW and my entire fans home and abroad…I LOVE YOU.

My final thanks goes to my humble self for being Oyebanjo Oluwasegun O. and for my steadfastness and commitment to my academics and for relying solely on God to take me through it all. Doxolodgy.

 

 

Abubabar .L. Olaitan

June 2008


ABSTRACT

          In order for organisation to survive whether public or private enterprises they need certain inputs, which are referred to, as factors of production out of all these factors of production are land, labour, capital and entrepreneur. Labour remain unique. The uniqueness of labour, which to some extent includes even the fact that in order to be able to make use of all the other factors of production, labour power has to be activated.

          Hence there is a need for training and development of workers to put together all these factors in order to attain organisational objective.

 

 

 

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                            vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.10       Background to the Study

1.11       Statement of the problems

1.12       Objectives of the Study

1.13       Research Questions

1.14       Research Hypothesis

1.15       Significance of the Study

1.16       Scope of the Study

1.17       Historical Background of Texaco Oil Nigeria Plc

1.18       Definition of Terms

References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.15       Introduction

2.16       Conceptual Framework of Training and Development

2.17       Different Between Training and Development

2.18       Effects of Training and Development

2.19       Importance of Training and Development

2.20       Determination of Training Needs

2.21       Planning Training

2.22       Types and Method of Training

2.23       Methods of Management Development

2.24       Obstacles to Training

2.25       Training Evaluation and Validation

2.26       Motivating Employees in Organisations

2.27       Motivation Theories and Effects on Employees

2.28       Some Training Institute in Nigeria

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Introduction

3.9            Employees Involvement in Training

3.10       Population of Study

3.11       Sample and sample Design

3.12       Research Sample

3.13       Sampling Technique Used

3.14       Data Collection and presentation of Analysis

3.15       Interview Method

CHAPTER FOUR

4.4            Data Gathering, Analysis and Presentation

4.5            Data presentation

4.6            Statistical Analysis of Data and test of Hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.5            Summary

5.6            Implications

5.7            Recommendation

5.8            Conclusion

Bibliography

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The roles of training and research in the managerial development of members of staff

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Organisation that neither train nor develop their staff will face the problems of quick ageing and loss of competitiveness, and the danger of extinction in this millennium. The dynamism and changes in the environments in which organisation operate today have become irreversibly, discontinuous, complex, and difficult to comprehend. The diversity, variability, spasmodic nature and sheer growth of knowledge especially in the area of information technology make the continuous upgrading of the critical skills and capabilities of employees a major imperative of human resources management. A recently concluded skill audit in selected, Nigerian public and private sector organisation shows that there is a major gap between the skills that management and non-management employees possess and that those that are required by their organisations to survive in the new corporate world and maintain best industry practice (Oyedijo .A.I, 1997).

The factors of productions are essential element for the survival of any business organisation; whether private or public enterprises. They need certain input i.e the factors of production. These are generally known as land, labour, capital, and entrepreneur. Of all the factor of production that have been identified for survival of any organisation, "Labour" is the most important and skill remain unique. The uniqueness of labour, which to some extent includes even the skill of the entrepreneur. In order to be able to make use of all other factors of production; labour power has to be achieved because without labour, production of goods and services cannot take place in any form. It is therefore obvious that the extent to which any business organisation succeeds or fails depend on how it is able to manage its human resources.

The drive for organisational goal attainment is central to every management. A major determinant in this drive is the level of efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation's human capital. As often said, the structure and position do not make an organisation but human being; do as they determine the activities goes on in the organisation. The ability of the organisation to achieve its goals depend on the following, (i) The number (ii) The skills (iii) The technique of its employees. So, for the purpose of goals attainment, survival and relevance in the competitive society, every organisation must show enough concern for the quality of its personnel. The obvious way of doing this is by training and development.

Human resources planning is an integrated set of activities designed to utilise the potential of employees than establishment. Human beings as active agent accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social, economic and political organisation and carry towards national development. Training and development is an important aspect of organisational management. It is a function that seeks to make available potential hands on deck. More importantly, training has a great impact on people (employee) because past event have shown that many left their organisation because their need for training was not identify which makes it difficult for them to be at a competitive level with their counterpart or colleagues from other organisation. Training and development has, therefore gained so mush prominence that management of organisation now talk about training and retraining. The new employee joining an organisation, however, well endowed in skills and knowledge, can hardly perform at the standard required of his position. The gap between his initial and expected performance will need to be filled through training and development.

It is a known fact that employee development process and training has been associated with performance. It will also help to build confidence in the workers and makes him efficient on the job. The question are however is "Are all the ascertain true?". It is somehow obvious that effort towards achieving the desire productivity level as remained a concerted struggle yet to be won. There is a need to find solution to the current needs and problems of the organisation, especially those related to productivity. This is due to rapidly growing business operating environment.

This research work will focus on the effect of training and development on workers productivity. The result of this study will serve as an input for further planning and formulation of relevant policies concerning the employee.

Training and development in public and private enterprises are big business, very big business indeed it refer to the process of acquiring new knowledge and skills for carrying out responsibility. They are undertaken by employees to produce change in their performance ability. in view of "Chruden and Sherman Jnr (1980), Training is any organisationally oriented procedure, which is intended to foster learning among organisational member. The desired learning is in a direction that is intended to contribute to overall organisational objective. At the same time, an effective training programme must demonstrably contribute to the satisfaction of the trainee's personal goals. Training is one of the most gigantic and pervasive enterprises in any economy. Like all other large-scale enterprises training and development are affected by demographic economic, political and social trends. The training manger must recognise that there are changes, trends, challenges and issues that must be dealt with now while they can be shaped, redirected and exploited before their fill effect are felt. The growing pace of technological development is rendering existing and skills of production obsolete. Modernisation and technological breakthrough speed up the production process, requiring new knowledge, skills and ultimately demanding training and retraining as an effective way of coping with such developments.

No enterprises can be guaranteed a permanent place in our highly competitive society and no manager can last very long unless he keeps his business competitive. If an enterprise is to compete successfully and endure, its product or service must excel. There was a time when individual's job future could be predicted on the basis of his current occupation; that time is past but presently, the sweeping technological advances and other factors that affect the labour market are changing-the whole mix of job and the skills needed to perform them. All that has a profound effect on the economy. What is even more important is that, it has a great impact on people (employee) unless training is provided; the livelihood and hundreds and thousands are likely to be wiped out in the next decade because those people will be caught without the right skills. Unskilled young people just entering the labour market will be particularly weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally (Attrition).

This study intend to show us that the only one way to cope with this problem is to have training and retraining programmes; because training and development as an indispensable part of management will help to equip back to work unemployed or underemployed. It can prevent skill from becoming obsolete. It can help equip out of school youth (graduate) with skills that will quality them for jobs.

1.2            STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Effort towards achieving the desired productivity level has remained a concerted struggle yet to be won. It is of important to examine the rapidly growing business environment, which has continued to increase problem of adaptation to its demands. As result of the growing pace of technological development, existing skill of production are being rendered obsolete hence the need for training and retraining as an effective the solution in order to achieve higher productivity and organisation effectiveness.

Over the years the problem posed to corporate management is under scored by the sharply rising rates to attrition among young management and professional personnel. Industry has not developed effective first line manager fast enough to meet his needs. As a consequence, many company under developing their most valuable resources young men and woman. They are incurring heavy attrition costs and contributing to the negative attitude young people often has about careers in business.

There arise a need to find solution to current need problems of the organisation such as how product quality, wastage or increase in scraps, or increasing errors in typing and so on.

1.3            OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Generally, training and development enhance the performance of the employee for the actualisation of organisational objectives. This research work will explore the relationship between training and development and workers productivity in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA (PLC) and attempt to recommend ways of overcoming problems, if any.

This study is interested in finding out the value of motivation or benefit accruable to the employee from the productivity level of profitability of the organisation. Every good training and development programmes must have well stated specific objective which serve three (3) main purpose: (i) Determine appropriate training or development techniques or method, (ii) Determine its outcome for both the trainee and the trainee (iii) Determine its evaluation.

This study will further seek to find out the adequacy and inadequacy of the training and development programmes offered by organisation. Also to know if training and development programmes can change workers behaviour and better their performance, organisational effectiveness and advancement. It hopes to achieve the following objectives among others:

i.                   Achievement of organisational effectiveness through training and development.

ii.                 Attainment of organisational objective through training and development

iii.              To investigate the improvement on employee's performance as a result of training and development.

"Carrel and Kuzmit" (1982) also identify the following general objectives of training and development;

a.                 To satisfy the personal growth and development

b.                 To orient new employees

c.                  To improve performance and achieve effectiveness

d.                 To provide job competency

e.                  To update employee's skill and avoid managerial obsolescence

f.                   To solve problems

g.                 Lastly, to prepare for promotion. Also the study will examine and investigate the various gains from training and development.

1.4            RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study will focus on TEXACO OIL (PLC) as it case study. The workers in the organisation will be interview and data will be collected via questionnaire that would be distributed to them. This is all in a bid to answer the following questions among others:

i.                   Does monetary reward motivate the workers to perform better?

ii.                 Why the need for training and development of employee?

iii.              Are training and development programmes designed for specific category of employee?

iv.              Does training and development increase workers productivity?

v.                 What are the gains of training and development programmes?

vi.              What are the methods of training and development employed by the organisation?

vii.            Is there a positive relationship between training and development and organisational effectiveness? Etc

1.5            STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

This study will focus on the effect of training and development on workers productivity in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA (PLC). The study will go further to test the following hypothesis if:

Ho:     There is a significant relationship, between training and development and workers productivity

Hi:     There is a positive relationship between training and development and workers productivity.

Ho:     There is a significant relationship between training and development and organisational effectiveness

Hi:     There is a positive relation between training and development and organisational effectiveness.

1.6            SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

Organisations generally assign certain task to employees. The extent to which these employees are prepared to carry out such tasks determine whether such employees will make a success out of the tasks they have been given to carry out. When employees are not properly trained, they are in no position to achieve concrete result for the organisation. For "Carrel and Kuzmits" (1982) "Training is the systematic process by which employees learn skills, information, or attitudes to further organisational and personal goals". It is no surprise that they therefore conclude that "every training system operates with a philosophy, set of belief concerning peoples, profit and productivity".

This research will be very relevant because it intend to investigate how human resources planner such as personnel manager would identify employees with great potential and achievement. Another significant aspect of this study is to examine how training, retraining, recruitment and retaining of experienced personal are been done in Texaco Oil Nigeria (PLC).

This study will be of relevant as its interested in examining the relationship between training and development in the organisation, the personnel problems such as lack of motivation, absenteeism, labour turn over and even corruption. Lastly, the result of this study could serve as inputs for further planning and formulation of relevant policies concerning the employee such policies in turn I believe may lead to improved performance and workers standard of living.

1.7     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will focus on Texaco Oil Nigeria (PLC) as its case study. Some workers in the company will be interviewed and the data collected from questionnaire that will be distributed to the workers will be used to conclude the impact of training and development on workers productivity.


1.8     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TAXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC.

The marketing of Texaco products in Nigeria commenced in 1913 when they were distributed exclusively by Champagne Franchise de I'Afrique accidental (CFAO) of France, a retail company. In 1964, Texaco Africa Limited started direct marketing of Texaco product selling through service stations and kiosks acquired from (CFAO) on lease terms. It also entered the aviation and burking business.

On August 12,1699 Texaco Limited was incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Texaco Africa Limited, this inheriting the business formally carried on in Nigeria by Texaco Africa Limited with the promulgation of the Nigeria indigenisation decree in 1978, 40% share of Texaco Nigeria Limited were sold to the Nigeria individual and organisations by Texaco Petroleum Company.

In 1990, the companies and Allied Matter Decree came into force and this necessitated the dropping of "Limited" from the company's corporate name to the prescribed Public Limited Company (Plc). A leading producer of quality lubricating Oils and Gases, Texas Petroleum Company also own's 60% of Texaco Nigeria Plc shares.

The company is proud of its commercial expertise its efficiency technical standards. Texaco Nigeria Plc has its head office in Lagos and PortHarcourt and operates in must of the 36 (thirty-six) states of the federation and the Federal Capital Territory through divisions.

Since its founding in 1913, Texaco Nigeria Plc has growth 381 service with over 235 employees and a retail market shares of 8 percentage. In a country known for being rich in petroleum resources, Texaco Nigeria Plc plays a significant role through a storage facility in Apapa which can hold in excess of 100,000 barrels and a lubricant blending plant which produces up to 250,000 barrels a year.

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Training: Training is any organisationally oriented procedure, which is intended to foster learning among organisational members.

          Development: Development means the process of acquiring managerial and technical skills on the job by a manager. Such managerial skills are in areas of decision making, leading, planning etc (Carrel and Kuzmits (1982).

Attrition: A process of making your enemy (competitors) weaker by repeatedly attacking them or creating problems for them.

Absenteeism: Absenteeism from work by an employee during working hours. The fact of being frequently away from work especially without good reasons.

Motivation: It is goal-directed behaviour. It starts with deficiency (needs), which activates behaviour (drives) aimed at a goal or goals (that which can alleviate the deficiency) (Luthans, 2005:231).

Vulnerable: to be vulnerable means to abuse, attack, illness. Also something weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally

Entrepreneur: Person taking commercial initiative outside and on behalf of his/her organisation.

Obsolete: No longer used (out of date) because something new has been invented. Technological innovation.

Factors of Production: These are land, labour, capital, and entrepreneur. They cause or influence development of business.

            Coaching: Individual or small group management training characterised by on-the-job training, continuous assessment personal counselling and tuition.

          T-Group Training: A method of training in human relations using informal roles and climate in a group structured to direct participants attentions to the inter-personal events and relations. Participants learn by extending their awareness of their actual and possible behaviour within the group.

 


REFRENCES

Carrel M.R. and F.E.Kuzmit (1982), "Human Resources Management".

Columber, Ohio Meril Publishing Coy; Bell and Howell Coy. Pp. 212

Chruden H.J. and Jnr (1980), "Personnel Management": Utilisation of

Human Resources. W. Sherman. Sherman Ohio South-Western publishing Coy: 1980. Pp. 187.

Dale's Beach (1985), "Personnel: Management of People at Work".

Gungan I. (1978), "Approaches to Training and Development".

Jones O. Obikoya (1996), "Essential of Personnel Management"

Steve A. Iyayi, "Training and Development of Human Resources".

Fundamental of Human Resources Management in Nigeria Edited by I.B. Belllo Iman, B.O. Oshionebo and S.A.Ojeifo.

Ubeku A. K. (1975), "Personnel Management in Nigeria" Ethiopia,

Benin City.


CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1            INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the literature review of the research will be approached with an open but critical mind to the existing literature in the sphere of training and development in theory and practical. This will be related to the concept of motivation because only a few place here some recognition that motivate individual to greater and more active participation in organisational activities. Every organisation needs have well trained and experienced people to perform the job that have to be done. If not it becomes necessary to raise the skill level and also increase the versatility and adaptability of employees.

This activity is also the exclusive duty of the personnel specialist. Training and development involves the improvement of knowledge and skills. This duty is just as old as personnel administration. This process involves on the job training in a work environment. The vestibule training is where the employee is trained before he is placed on the job. Training and development constitute an important back up to the recruitment and selection process in organisation because training essentially seeks to provide the organisations' employees with job skills necessary to the business set up.

Employees training and development is at the heart of workers utilisation, production, commitment, motivation and growth. Studies have shown it that many workers fails in organisations because their need for training was not identified and provided for as an indispensable part management function. Training and development exercise have become increased activities of management functions of organisation and will remain so. Changing societal demands on organisations for improved services, coupled with the remarkable increase in automation, well explain the continuous increase in the scope and imperativeness of training and development for the organisations. The emerging truth is that there is nothing like over training and development. The consequence is that employers now talk of training and retraining. Systematic training and development may help to build confidence in the worker and make him effective and efficient on the job.

2.2            CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

As jobs have become more complex, the importance of employee training has increased when jobs were simple, easy to team and influenced to only a small degree by technological changes taking place during the last quarter. Century in our society we have created increase pressures for organisation to readapt their product and services. The services produced are offered the types of jobs required and the types of skills necessary to complete those jobs.

Manpower training and development is central to all organisations and has become an improvement area of contemporary management for any organisation to service. The need to train and develop available staff to handle the affair of the organisation is very important. Training and development have come to be identified by several experts as the most vital and effective strategy for achieving organisational goals, because human resources planning and job objective are derived from corporation strategic plan and objectives. There are various schools, on the definition of training and development.

Training and development refer to the processes of acquiring new knowledge and skills for carryout responsibilities. They are undertaken by employees to produce change in their performance ability. Training involves the process through which employees acquire knowledge, attitude and behaviour required for effective and efficient on the job performance. Training is a planned learning process which seek to bring about a relatively procurement change in an individual. This change of course is expected to rub on the employee's ability to perform on the job, which entails the changing of skills, knowledge, attitude or socio-behaviour.

Training- according to Davar (1950), training's main goal is "to induce a suitable change in the individual concerned". It is "to bridge the gap between existing performance ability and desired performance. Training and development has developed into important area of contemporary management because of the functional importance it has assumed in the recent past; many organisation usually provides general knowledge to its prospective employees, it is left to the organisations to train its workforce to suit its needs after employing them.

In general, "training" has been defined as the provision for the acquisition of skills that are needed for current jobs where as "development" means the process of acquiring managerial and technical skills on the job by a manager. Such managerial skills are in area of decision-making, co-ordinating, leading, planning etc. Development in this context is broader and more embracing as an activity than training. Carrel and Kuzmits (1982).

Many author have variously defined training and development in line with how they view it. DEPHILIPS (1964) defines training as the process which under company auspices seeks in a planned coordinated and continuous manner to develop in all employee those understanding, skills and attitude which will maximize individual present and future efficiency and the effectiveness of the overall company operations.

NWACHUKWU (1998) explains that training is an organisational effort aimed at helping employee to acquire basic required for the efficient execution of the functions for which he was hired. He further explained that employee's productivity is a function of will, ability and determination. In his own assertion, ARMSTRONG (1984), define training as the systematic development of the knowledge, skill and attitude required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job. BEACH (1975) defined training as the organisation initiated procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. The objective of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of the trainee. HINRICHS. (1976) defines training as any organised procedure, which intends to contribute to overall organisational objectives.

TRENCH AND SEWARD (1977) defined training as the systematic development and improvement of an individual ability to perform a specific task or job. Agreeing with him, HINRICHS (1976) also wrote that training is the systematic processing of altering the behaviour and or attitude of employees in direction to increase organisational achievement.

UBEKU (1975) defined management training as the process of development of managerial skills, knowledge and attitudes through instructions, demonstration, practice and planned experience to meet the present and future needs of the business.

 

          According to FASHOYIN employee training and development is an attempt to improve current or future performance by increasing through leaving, and employee's ability to perform by changing his attitudes and increasing his skills and knowledge. From this definition, employee development is seen as a planned process of providing employees with learning experience designed to enhance their contribution to organisational goals.

          STONE (1980), in his book "understanding personnel management" defined training as any organisational planned effort to change the behaviour or attitudes of employees so that they can perform to acceptable standard on the job. But KOONTZ and HINRICHS still maintain that training pertain to the programmes that facilitate the learning process while development is viewed as a systematic, integrated and planned approach to improving the effectiveness of group of people in an organisation. Another school of thought HACKET (1979) hold same view; MC GEHEE and THAYER (1964) added another dimension to the definition of development by explaining that it is a course of action designed to enable the individual realise his potential for growth in the organisation. They believe it refers to future rather than present jobs. There has been a controversy on the relationship between training and development whether training can be said to be inclusive or exclusive of development.

          Training and development is a complex mixture of many thing aimed at increasing the ability of the individual and groups to contribute to the achievement of organisational goals. One important and interesting thing in these definitions is the emphasis on the element of planning. Training is supposed to be planned and deliberate. Organisations encourage a training scheme aimed at modifying behaviour of its member in the direction of increasing organisational goals. This explains the reason why companies make deliberate effort to train their work force to acquire job relevant skill and improve behaviour patterns.

          Human resources training and development would have as its focal point the enhancement of organisational efficiency and effectiveness, which lead to the achievement of corporate goals and objective. According to TURNOW and GARTLAND (1980) "managers are the key link for maximising the positive relationship between individual performance and organisational effectiveness. RUSH, turnover GARTLAND and PINTO (1977) in a paper suggested the four keys in human resources development and training:

a.                  Design and evaluate steps to ensure that stated objective are achieved, performance and potentials are improved and that these are transferred to job performance.

b.                  Identify the relevant description of key management development objective via a job

c.                   Obtain comprehensive description of key management job and the individual's performance strength and weakness;

d.                  Individualise the development programme through the prioritisation of development and the areas and the selection of development activities.

In a nutshell, training involves identification of training need, analysing the training need, setting the objectives, planning the programme, executing the programme, selection of participants, monitoring and controlling, and evaluating the programme. A well organised training and development is often described as "systematic training"

Training is an end in itself but a means of improving employee and organisational efficiency. Thus, the analysis of training needs will be a continuous focus on employee and organisational objectives. Training is a short term process utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which non-managerial learns technical knowledge and skills for definite purpose. Lastly, training is any organisationally planned effort to change the behaviour and attitude of employee so that they can perform to acceptance standard on the job.

According to ARMSTRONG (1988) the aims of training are:

i.              To improve the performance of existing employee

ii.                 To shorten learning time so that new recruits reach their peak of efficiency as quickly as possible.

iii.              To help the people develop their capabilities so that the company can meet most, if not all its future requirement for mangers, supervisor and higher grade professionals, technical and sales, or production staff within the organisation.

Development is a long-term educational process utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. This helps to establish a link between management development and managerial effectiveness.

Long-term needs, on the other hand, entail projecting for future managerial needs of organisation taking into consideration its planned expansion, expected vacancies to be created by upward movement through promotion, resignation etc. the additional mangers required to cope with long-range needs come from two sources. First recruitment of new managers and second, development of existing personnel with potential for improvement. Management of organisation more popularly adopts the second option. Under this, supervisors are required to determine the strength and weakness of the manager and those who are promo table and are to be developed. It usually suggests a broader view of knowledge and skills acquisition than training.

It focuses more on employee potential than with immediate skill; it sees employees as adaptable resources. "HEDGES and ZIEGLER" sees development as being used in connection with managerial level and implies a broader order, which requires co-ordination and making decision based on analysis. They also went further to sub-divide development into supervising and executive. The executive development relates to middle and the top management while the supervisory relates to front line supervisor and foreman.

FASHOYIN TAYO identified two (2) broad approaches to training and development. These are:

i.                   On-the-job training programme

ii.                 Off-the-job training programme.

They are distinguish by who participate in them, secondly where the programme is conducted, thirdly, which employee ability is being changed i.e. whether technical skill, knowledge interpersonal skills, attitude, conceptual skill etc.

          ON-THE-JOB-TRAINING: It refers to instruments given to employees on the job by their supervisor or any other experienced employee. The techniques commonly used include:

Job Rotation: Which is also known as cross training. This is an act of putting an employee on different jobs for a specified period of time to enable him acquires the skills and knowledge for doing specific task. (Fansworth, 1975).

Apprenticeship Training: This method combines both the on-the job and off- the –job techniques. It runs with the cooperation between the employees, the government and educational institutions (technical or vocational school) and labour unions. It trains employees in vocations like welding, Carpentry, building, barbering, plumbing, driving etc, which is evaluated with tests administered to participants. (Stratuss 1971).

Enlarged Responsibility: This is a popular on-the-job training method. The manager or supervisor assigns additional duties and responsibilities to his subordinate employee. He allows him the opportunity for decision-making by deliberately exposing him to challenging jobs and problems solving situations. The subordinate employee makes and learns from mistakes.

Orientation or Induction: This technique is usually used for both on and off the job programmes and for training and development. An orientation course provides the new employees with an understanding of the organisation, the contributions of employees to actualising organisational goals, and the contribution of the services of the organisation to the growth of the society.

          Generally, the employees will need to know about pay or remuneration and other conditions of services such as security, medical care and insurance policy for employees, housing and transportation etc. In some cases, the exercise is centred on history of the organisation. As organisation grow, it becomes necessary for them to also keep the old employee informed about changes in conditions of service, e.g pay review, welfare packages including benefits. The first few days make a very casting impression about the organisation on the employees. Confusion and enthusiasm are the two (2) dominant emotions during the new employ attempts to diminish the former and foster the latter (Meyer, 1977).

          Despite it usefulness, on-the-job training have the following problems:

i.                   Errors which are disastrous and which can be costly to the organisation could be made while they learn.

ii.                 It could lead to low productivity while employee develop their skill i.e. As they undergo training, employee attention is divided between what they are learning and the performance of their duty, this leads to the decrease in production and could affect the image of the organisation.

Some of its merits are

i.                   There is better training transfer while it affords employees to make direct contribution

ii.                  There is often no need of a separate area of training as this can be provided right on the company's premises

iii.                On-the-job training provides for the trainees, actual experience in managing and exposes them to the peculiarities of each department.

Off- The-Job- Training: This refers to any type of training conducted outside the job area of the employee. There are two (2) types of off-the-job training. First, "IN-HOUSE" training programmes arranged by organisations for the their employees using their facilities within the organisation but outside the job area of the trainee. Second, training programmes hold away from the organisation and conducted by professional association, educational institutions, consulting firms, even the organisation concerned at its own institute or training centre.

          Furthermore, off-the-job training involves formal course arranged for mangers to develop their managerial skills and techniques outside their jobs, either within the organisations premises or off-site. The facilities needed for each of these techniques vary from a small make shift classroom to an elaborate development centre with large lecture halls, supplemented by small conference room and sophisticated audio visual equipment, two way mirrors and all the frills.

          It should be maintained that there is no training method that is right for all situations. A number of trade-off must be made when actually making the choice of techniques and putting a training programme together. The cost and capacity of the trainers or trainees are all to be considered.

2.3            DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Several times effort and space have been devoted to identify the difference between training and development. First, the categorisation of the groups or state of the employers involved is different. Where as non-management personnel have historically used training to designate the acquisition of technically oriented skills, development is normally associated with the methods and activities designated to enhance skills of managers or future managers.

Second, training programmes focus on a smalter number of technical skills, while management development programme tend to focus on wide range skills. Example, training program on computer programming for a secretary is designed to replace traditional typing with the modern typewriter with a computer device for word processing, information storage and retrieval. But developing program for the manger will take cognisance of the manager's duties which include intricate skills in coordinating, organising, leading, planning, motivating, communicating, human relations and scheduling of duties. The program thus includes the mangers' conceptualisation of the organisation as part of his managerial skills in addition to his required technical skill and knowledge in the use of computer.

Third, training focuses on the short run while development aims at the long run. For the manger, development activities are continuous throughout his career. Managers therefore spend goods period of each of their working years in both on-and off-the-job development activities and programmes. (Carrel and Kuzmits; 1982).

In spite of these above normal areas of contrast, both training and development bring about change in behaviour of the individuals and important in the organisation. They are processes that are individual and organisation-targeted. In reality, all seems to agree on some silent profits such as:

i.                   Increasing productivity

ii.                 Skill increment

iii.              Reducing the cost of productivity

iv.              Knowledge advancement

v.                 Increasing the positive attitude changes

vi.              Heightening the staff morale.

However, the difference between these two (2) concepts can also be demonstrated in four (4) ways through the table below:

S/n

Question

Training

Development

1

Who

Non-managerial

Managerial

2

What

Technical and Mechanical

Theoretical and philosophical

3

Why

Specific job related purpose

General purpose knowledge

4

When

Short term

Long term

 

From the above illustration, this paper therefore sees training and development as formal and informal activities, which bring about change in the skills, knowledge and attitude of employees for the fulfilment of their individual career and organisational goals. They are processes of equipping employees of organisations with the most effective and efficient skills, knowledge, techniques abilities and methods of carrying out jobs with minimum cost.

2.4            EFFECTS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

The effects of training and development on employees and organisation include:

i.                   Making work a little easier for employees and energy one involved.

ii.                 Effectiveness and efficiency for higher productivity and profitability.

iii.              Reduction of tensions among employees, between supervisor and employers, and among supervisors and higher member of the management.

iv.              More practical methods of problems solving through computerisation

v.                 Quicker detection of potential problems

vi.              Staff might leave the firm after they finished their training

vii.            The expectations of employees from their jobs may increase in consequences of training. They may hope to be promoted or to receive higher pay. Where these expectations are not met, the employees may resign from the organisation.

Training activities depend on the policies and strategies of the organisation. Some organisations carry out the minimum of staff training and development because as a matter of their company policies, they prefer to recruit staff that are already trained or professionally qualified. They accept the to market rates for skilled staff and avoid the risk of recruiting fresh and unskilled workers.

2.5            IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Training and development is beneficial to the employee, the organisation and the society in many respects. Human resources constitute the inmate basis of wealth of nations; capital and natural resources cure passive factor of production. Human being they said are the active agencies who accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social, economic and political, organisation and any forward national development.

Clearly, 'A country which is unable to develop the skills and knowledge of its people and do utilize them effectively in the national economy will be unable to develop anything else' (HARBISON).

Organisations have to train and develop its employee because these activities are crucial to the success of modern organisation because of rapid changes in technology. Both activities play important roles in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of any organisation. The benefits of training have been looked at in terms of what efficient training procedure is expected to contribute to organisational growth as Immediate benefits of training to the employee; with respect to what efficient training procedure should contribute to the achievement of organisation goals.

Five Factors / Importance are Identify Namely: 

i.                   Reducing the costs of managing personnel activities as reflected in turn over, absenteeism, accidents, grievance and complaints

ii.                 Reducing of overhead and labour cost by reducing the amount of time required to perform the operations involved in goods and services and by reducing the time required to bring the inexperienced employee to acceptable level of job proficiency.

iii.              Reducing looses due to excess waste and to the production of detective products.

iv.              Reducing the general overall cost of administration of conducting a business by creating a psychological climate, which orients the activities of each employee towards achieving the major goals of the organisations.

v.                 Reducing the cost of efficiency services customers by improving time flow of goods or services from the industry to the customer.

In a recent work, SIBTHORPE (1991), present the nine (9) immediate importance/benefits of training to the employee. They are identified below:

i.                   The employee is given adequate opportunity to lean the duties and responsibilities of his job.

ii.                 It may be that a week planned; well occurred training programmes will impress employees with the feeling that a company has ready interest in his welfare.

iii.              Adequate training gives the employee a fair chance to experience success and avoid the frustrating experience of failure in performing the duties for which he is being paid.

iv.              The additional skills and knowledge can give way for promotion to jobs to greater responsibility.

v.                 An employee who is trained properly can reach higher level of piece rate or day rate; pay more quickly that can be poorly trained employee.

vi.              Such a programmes probably helps to reduce the feeling of strangeness and aloneness usually generally by being an alien or moral situation.

vii.            There is also some suggestive evidence that fatigue is reduced when the individual can perform at task in a skilled and habitual manner.

viii.         There is some evidence that accidents occur with less frequency to employees who are well trained.

ix.              In addition to satisfactory performance on the job, an employee may serve from an adequate training programme opportunity to learn additional skills and acquire knowledge and finally.

While discussing the importance/benefits of training and development, look at it in terms of benefits to the task, to the term and benefits to the individual. Under benefits to the tasks, factors such as coping with changes, increased productivity task expertise, reduction of mistakes and standardisation of work are identified.

With respect to benefits to the term, Sibthorpe (1991) holds the view than the 4(four) main areas where term work in a company can be improved through training and development. The first is RECRUITMENT; another area namely "EXCHANGING" is explained, as the ability of employees in different parts of the company to exchange of views and information is considered helpful in promoting a common identity in the company as well as social ties. This is said to general new solutions to problems.

The third benefit to the term has to do with what Sibthorpe has called "THE HAWTHORNE EFFECT" a situation where employees experience a serve of satisfaction if they feel they have selected for special attention. The fourth benefit to the term is identified as Motivation, Stimulation, Presentation, Skill And Knowledge

Motivation is experienced as a result of the sense of satisfaction which employee have, this often tends to stimulation which is considered as the ability of individuals to realise their role in the organisation. Training and development is also said to give an excellent opportunity for developing the skills of presentation through role plays, video recording and syndicate work, employees can be exposed to the experience of making prescription in a friendly atmosphere; finally, training programmes helps the individual employees to increase their knowledge.

Bennett, (1997) believes that training and development helps to achieve the following:

i.                   To improves worker's competence

ii.                 It equips employee for higher-level work

iii.              It makes the society enjoy a higher standard of services and better quality products

iv.              It enhances employee's morale

v.                 It increases the quality of output and performance

vi.              It provides a core of skill and knowledge for innovation and develops hidden talents.

vii.            It increases job satisfaction resulting in higher output less absenteeism and lower turnover of staff.

viii.         It creates a flexible and adaptable workforce and a reduced need for detailed supervision

ix.              It helps keep the organisation ahead of technical progress by providing the required responses to changing technology and job demands.

x.                 Lastly, training and development helps employees to do their work better, with less strain and with more employment.

WOLE ADEWUNMI (1982) sums up the benefits of training to the direct beneficiary, which is the individual. He believes that training helps the direct beneficiary primarily in increasing his/her job skills. A well-trained employee is not only efficient on the job but is confident and happy because he possesses what it takes to enjoy what he is doing. It also believes that at the same time, he becomes better paced to realise his maximum contribution, his capacities allow. This is said to increase his hopes for growth in the organisation and keep his morale up and high enough to generate efficient performance.

The general society is believed to benefit from training in two (2) ways, first by the resulting increase in the stock of skilled manpower available as well as efficient and courteously delivered service provided to customers.

2.6     DETERMINATION OF TRAINING NEEDS

Training is a continuous process, which is aimed at increasing the skill and knowledge of new as well as old employee to enable them to perform their job well.

Training involves learning the job by an employee. But sometimes, a manager may decide to set up a training programme because it is the popular thing to do and because other organisation are doing it. such a tendency is not good in the long term. Therefore, training programmes should be set up only after having a clear-cut objective in mind. Without objective it is useless and merely involves wastage money.

Determining who is to be trained and develop and the technique and content of training and development, is usually difficult. Save for the orientation or induction courses, selecting from existing employees and mounting training and development program for them do have for them is no easy task. Some organisations do have scheduled routine programs for their employees and handling specific duties. They have development politics containing the intentions and plans of action well articulated and based on principles and over all objectives. The polities further spell out the procedures and standards crucial to the smooth and profitable running of the organisations, giving direction to a commitment to continuous development

For training and development to be meaningful, both organisational and individual needs must determine it. It must enhance the performance of the employee as well as better his career prospects and ultimately contribute to the actualisation of the goals of the organisation. The trainer handling the programmes should also avoid putting trainees in programs that have no well articulated objective, carried techniques and proper evaluation strategy.

Four (4) procedures are used by the managers to identify the training needs:

i.                   Analysis of Job Requirement: Examining the appropriate skills necessary for performing different task. Workers without the skill became candidate for the training needs.

ii.                 Organisation Analysis: - Analysing the efficiencies of the organisation in meeting less goals. Where low performance or high labour turnover is noted in one unit, the members may require additional training.

iii.              Survey of Human Resources: Using questionnaire, interview or observation to know what problems workers face in their work place and how they are grouped to tackle such problems.

iv.              Performance Appraisal: This is the process of looking at they past performance of an employee, considering the suitability of the employee for promotion and salary review, and considering how the performance of the employee can be improved.

Therefore, wherever training needs are found, it is to lay down objective of training on the basis of needs or circumstances of the case.

2.7     PLANING TRAINING

Once the training needs have been identified, the training staff can commence the task of drawing up detailed plan about the training and submitting their draft plan for approval by the senior management. The training programmes can be formal or informal and can take place on –the –job or off- the-job. The on- the job training is very common especially when the work involved is not complex. The advantage include economy, transfer of training and production during training. The disadvantage is that on-the- job training is always haphazard.

The off- the- job training does no mean that the training is always done outside the company. The term simply means that the training is not part of every day activity. The major advantage is that the trainer is not distracted by the job requirement. The major disadvantage is cost and transfer of training. Training plans are usually designed to find answer to the following questions.

·        How is it going to be provided?

·        What sort of training to be provided?

·        When shall it be provided?

·        Who should attend?

·        Where is it going to hold?

·        At what cost?

2.8            TYPES AND METHODS OPF TRAINING:

There are three (3) broad approach / wages of training an employee. They are: on the-job training, off- the –job training and vestibule training. The choice of any method will defence on cost, number of person to be method, background of trainee, time available, depth of knowledge required, space available and other factors. A detailed analysis of each of these types of training and the methods in them is presented below.

1.       ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

          It occurs at the place of works it also includes verbal instruction and practical demonstrations, specialist short courses and briefly session (ORIEBEBOR and OYEDIJO, 1995). It contains and consists of all forms of training that are undertaken by the employee while he is still working. It involves teaching people how to do their work while they are actually doing it. Often, trainers are supervisors or managers who work in the same department as trainees, so that trainees can learn techniques while actually producing goods.

          The main attractions of on- the-job training are that there is no disruptions of work and no direct financial training costs. A problem however, is that on-the-job training creates in- breading. In addition, the workplace might not be the best environment in which to learn effectively. The main techniques or methods of on-the-job training are: -

(a) Apprenticeships/ Graduate Traineeships: Where newly employed staffs are placed under a senior manager for the period of his apprenticeship or traineeship after which he/she may be appointed to a position within the company.

(b) Acting Up and Assistantships: Where an employee understanding, acts as, and / or deputies for his boss. The main thirst of this method is to give the trainee "Special Assignment" which requires him to develop new experiences outside his normal schedule.

(c) Job Rotation: This is a merry-go-round "training technique which consist of a systematic programme of moving and inter changing employees from one job to another, where possible throughout the organisation for suitable periods of time. The employee is moved round various units until he becomes a generalist and can function in any of them.

2.       OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING:

Off-the-job training is undertaken externally in training centres or schools or in hotels or purpose-built residential training centre or in a section of the firm's premises reserved for this purpose.

          The main attraction off-the-job training is that it allows trainees to concentrate on the instruction given since trainees are freed from pressure and distraction of the workplace. The main problem of off-the-job is that it disrupts production. The commonest techniques or methods of off-the-job training are:

(a) Coaching: This is a one-to-one instruction where, typically, the instructor performs an operation, which is then imitated by the trainee. The instructor can vary the pace of the training to suit the capacity of trainee and can remedy mistake instantly.

(b) Lecture: These are transmission of sets of facts and opinions to a large audience, normally without the trainee's participation other than listening and taking notes. They consist of traditional classroom teaching supported by handout to reinforce and consolidate the material that is transmitted.

(c) Simulation: Here, real life problems are given to people to solve. Trainees act out samples of real business behaviour in order to practice how to make decision or work together as a group or both. The main techniques of job simulation are management game and role-playing.

(d) Programme Instruction: This is method whereby the trainee learns on his own from a prepared test or teaching machine. Computer-based training (CBT) user software package that contain instructional material plus exercise to test the trainees understanding of the topic concerned, most CBT follows the principles of programmed learning, whereby users are not allowed to pregress until they have mastered the previous section of the work, e.g by answering all test questions correctly. This enables trainees to work independently and at their own pace.

(e) Circuit Scheme: Here, manager visits each other organisations. The purpose is for each team of mangers to report bank on the differences in method; approach, cost and results observed and suggest issues about their own organisation, which might be investigated. It is easier to use this method in public sector than in the private sector where secrets are safeguarded against competitors.

(f) Conferences and Workshop or Group Training: Here, employees work out solution to common problems under an experienced conference leader. The problem is outline and the participations work through its solution. Group training may involve case studies (Simulation of real life problems) role playing or group discussion. Participants examine each other views and learn collectively through pooling ideas and experience. Often group training involves action learning whereby trainee themselves collect and evaluate the date needed to solve a real life problem, implement a solution and analyse the consequences.

3.                 VESTIBULE TRAINING: This training combines on-the job and off-the-job training methods. Workers are not moved out of their company rather, instructors are brought in from outside, including some mangers in the company.

2.9            METHOD OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT

Many development programmes will be dependent on focus. The focus of development method may be people oriented, job specific or oriented towards planning and conceptual learning. In short, development programmes can on-the-job development. The methods includes: (i) Coaching  (ii) Committee Assignment (iii) Job Rotation (iv) Assignment Position (v) Special Process e.g Conference leadership.

The off-the-job methods of management development includes:

i.        Classroom Course: Studying for higher degree in instructions of higher learning.

ii.       Special Programme: Short course offered by colleagues and consultancy firms.

iii.      Case Studies

iv.      Simulation (Business games)

v.       Human relation training

vi.      Sabbaticals and leave of absence

vii.     Group Training: Sometimes called sensitivity training.

          A technique of learning about one self and others by observing and participation in-group situation.

2.10   OBSTACLES TO TRAINING

Training, as importance as it is to all organisations, human resources development was been faced with a lot of problems which gives it a limitation, although, government and individual organisation are making effort to solve some of the problems. Generally, some of the problems are outlines below:

1        Fear of being bought over by other bigger organisation: Whenever organisation trains their employees, there is always this fear especially if the employee is a well skilled personnel. Therefore, organisation prefers not to waste their money training personnel that will soon be pushed away.

2        Financial Constrain: Due to fact that employers and organisations in general prefer to maximise their profit as the main aims of their establishment most organisation hardly see the need to make adequate budget for their staff training and development. Instead they recruit already trained personnel with experienced.

3        Staffing: Most of these organisations are all staffed; the permanent training staff may not be more than three (3) senior officers. But an ideal training division should be adequately stayed to provide good training to trainee. It is important that the trainer must be a professional in their fields.

4        The right personnel are not sometimes trained due to selfish interest. Nowadays, in most organisations, training is related to whom you know.

5        Space and machinery: Most organisations due to the problem of space and machinery have been a limitation to the kind of training that can be carried out. Also, machinery which go hand in hand with technological advancement is necessary for training.

          The McGehee W. and P.W. Thayer (1964) identified four (4) different obstacles to effective training. According to them, effective and efficient use of training by management has been blocked by:

i.                   Lack of information concerning the nature of the learning process.

ii.                 Failure of management to accept responsibility for training

iii.              Training being regarded as an end rather than a means to an end

iv.              Lastly, lack of knowledge and skill on the part of management in directing and executing training

In their publication on "management training for real". The Institute of Personnel Management (London) identified five (5) difficulties, which could be faced by people when they are trained on the job. They are itemised below:

i.        The pressure of time. It is believed that training in the real situation adds to what already feels like an overload of work.

ii.       People run into practical problems rather than hypothetical ones. This factor is not an obstacle to training, in fact it is one of the ways by which training could be strengthened.

iii.              There could be difference in the motivation of employees being developed. It is also believed that it cannot be assured that all managers have the long term good of the organisation as their prime aim or even that their wish for promotion is strong.

iv.              Many training exercise meet with little initial enthusiasm this point is not necessarily correct because there are cases where employee's struggle to be selected for training courses.

v.                 It is believed that most employees tend to prefer external course as opposed to on-the-job training. Again, this is not necessarily true for all employees.

2.11   TRAINING EVALUATION AND VALIDATION

The two concepts "Evaluation" and "Validation" can be easily confused. The idea of validation centres on the relevance and uniqueness of the contents or any training programme. Thus, a validation test of any training programme again to be concerned with finding out whether the contents of any training programme can be useful in tackling the problem for which the training programme has been drawn.

Evaluation, which is closely related to validation, seeks to discourse whether trainees have benefits from a training exercise. The evaluation phase is the third and final phase of training and development activities. No training or development exercise has ended if the training has not been evaluated. To trainee, the exercise ends when the trainer bids him farewell while he returns to his work. The truth is that the exercise at that point is yet to run its full course.

Evaluation is outstanding. There is often the tendency to equate the success of training and development programs to the member of participants recorded, facilities deployed including the resource persons used, and the money realised where applicable. But evaluation focuses on the achievement in terms of accomplishment of the objectives set for the exercise, the resultant increase in performance and behaviour. According to Kirkpatrick (1983), the evaluation system comprises measuring the participant's reaction, the participant's learning, change in the participant's behaviour and impact of the programme upon organisational effectiveness. It is fact difficult to carry out separate tests for training evaluation and validation since both are concerned with identical issues. For instance, three (3) issues that are relevant to any validation or evaluation exercise are as follows:

i.                   It is only when the validation of training, exercise has been done that an evaluation of it can be done.

ii.                 Determining whether or not the training procedure under consideration actually in the modification of time behaviour of the employees concerned.

iii.              Determining whether or not the outcome of the training procedures have any demonstrable relationship to the achievement of organisation goals.

Some methods of evaluating training programmes are:

Training can be evaluated at 4(four) levels:

i.        Reaction: In the first level of evaluation the participant's opinion, reactions and attitudes about the overall effectiveness of the programme are obtained. His reaction is on the content, length, and relevance of the learning the personality and general disposition of the trainer. The instrument used here is the questionnaire.

ii.       Learning: The second level of evaluation, which is measurement of what the participants learn, is difficult to do. The problem is however solved by administering a test on the participants.

iii.      Behaviour: The third level on the change of behaviour by participant is best done by observation and performance appraisal to know whether or not learning was transferred from training to the job.

iv.      Results: The fourth and final level, which is to know the organisational goals that the training achieved, may appear appealing theoretically and practically but it is not easily carried out. The possible goals include improvement in productivity, quality of services rendered job satisfaction, decreased turnover of personnel, accident and grievances etc.

          TRACEY (1968) has identified 6(sex) principles of evaluations:

i.                   Evaluation must be considered in term of purpose

ii.                 It must be co-operative

iii.              It must be continuous

iv.              It should be specific

v.                 It must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves, their practise and their products.

vi.              It must be based uniform and objective methods of standards.

If any training evaluation exercise is to be successful them it must be devoid at bias. It should be done as objectively as possible. To justified, training must make an impact on the performance of the trainees. To determine this, the post training result must be compared with the objectives experienced by management, trainer and trainees.

2.12   MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES IN ORGANISATION

Motivation is one of the greatest challenges facing mangers across the globe because it influences workers' performance and thus, the extent to which the organisation is able to achieve its objectives and justify its existence.

Motivation is derived from the Latin word-movere which means to move. Simply speaking, it is goal directed behaviour. It starts with deficiency (needs), which activates behaviour (drives) aimed at a goal or goals (that which can alleviate the deficiency)

Motivation is a general term used to denote the inter-relationship between needs and the fulfilment of these needs. These three (3) inter-dependent elements:  Needs, Drives and Incentives (or Goal) are thus central to a proper understanding of motivation.

The concern of managers right from time has been to ensure that workers put in their best in the places of work and that their best is good enough. In effect there are 2(two) major challenges: how to ensure that the workers are committed to the goals of the organisation and that they are working towards those goals to the best of their abilities. These two (2) challenges are complicated by the fact that the workers have different needs, which also vary with time.

Some managers hold their view that employees can be motivated to improve productivity by means of monetary incentives. The monetary scheme may take a variety of different forms e.g. individual bonus scheme, a profit showing plan, piece rate, a term bonus or group bonus scheme, a high rate system etc. A general problem of monetary incentives is that they are effective in the short run but not necessary cost effective on the other hand; money can motivate depending on the individual need for money. Money is not an end itself but a means of satisfying needs.

Another means of motivation is participation. Most behaviourists believe that job satisfaction guaranteed if superior invites subordinates to participate in planning decisions, which affect their work. The organisation should therefore match incentives with employee needs by offering what he needs or making him needs what the organisation can offer. It is also important to stress that motivation is a personal affairs; nobody can motivate anybody else. What managers can do is to provide conducive environment to enable the workers motivate themselves.

Maslow theory emphasis that motivating employee in an organisation, the manager should ascertain a staffs current position on the hierarchy so as to determine what would motivate him; the goal-setting theory urges us to ensures that goals are properly set and that they have motivational features; McGregor encourage manager to treat workers with more respect and trust by adopting the theory Y paradigm while Herzberg urges managers to pay attention to motivational factors and avoid KITA tendencies.

Beyond the theories however, motivating employee in organisation or getting the best from staff involves:

·        Recruiting / selecting qualified staff (Competence, traits, experience-oil matched with the job and environment.)

·        Tell them clearly what to do: The job description must be explicit and well understood. The goals should also be specific and motivational.

·        Tell them how to do it: Training to endow them with the skills, attitude and knowledge relevant to the job.

·        Equip the staff to do the job: Material resources, policies, commensuration authorities, etc.

·        Provide a conducive environment: Physical environment, organisational climate, leadership style, adequate stock of social capital, ambience and lighting

These five conditions can be seen as the foundation for effective motivational strategies. In their absence, no effort at motivation would yield fruit. But when they are taken care of, there is a high probability that the motivational efforts of the management would pay off.

2.13   MOTIVATION THEORIES AND EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEES

At difficult stages in the evaluation of management thought, manager subscribed to different models or theories of motivation. These theories can be arranged in the order in which they evolved, that is traditional models, the human relation model, and the human resources model.

The traditional model assumed theory and approach of leadership and considered human being to be motivated solely by monetary incentives. The human relation approach evolved with the report of Elton-Mayo in the Hawthorne Experiment. The research found that the social contract employee has at work were also important and that the bore-dorm and repetitive task were factors responsible for dissatisfaction in enterprise.

The researchers believe that motivation could be gained by acknowledging the social of workers and making them feels useful and important. As a result, greater attention was given to be use of informal groups in organisation. Researchers like LIKERT, MASLOW, A.H and HERZBERG Criticized human relations approaches as being simple and presented a more sophisticated approach to the manipulation of employee. They believed employee were motivated by many factors, not only were desire for satisfaction but also the need for achievement and meaningful work.

According to the human resources model, managers should not include workers to company with managerial objective by means of high wages or considerate treatment, but should share responsibility for achieving organisational and industrial reward with each person contributing on the basis of his interest.

CONTENT THEORY AND PROCESS THEORY OF MOTIVATION

Theories of motivation have been traditionally grouped into those that try to identify what motivate people (content theories) and those that concentrate on how motivational choices are made (process theories). Other emerging theories have been identified as control theories (concerned with the motivational impact of the degree to which workers perceive that they are in control of their lives or their jobs) and the Agency theories (which are concerned with the motivational value of the divergence or convergence of interest between the principles-the firm-and their agents-the workers). Some of these theories are discussed here under.

i.        Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow, A.H. 1943). The hierarchy of needs theory propounded by Abraham Maslow in 1943 is one of the earliest and most popular theories of motivation. It is also one of the content theories of motivation. Maslow posits that there are certain psychological needs of the individual that combine with other biological, national and situational factors to influence the behaviour of individuals. These baskets of needs, which he arranged in a hierarchy order are as follows:

·        The first is psychological needs such as hunger, man-sexual desire, sleepiness, thirst, activity needs. An individual becomes totally pre-occupied with these needs when they are deficient.

·        Second, safety need: freedom from danger and things that threaten human safety.

·        Third, love needs: generally, this refers to the needs for affiliation and belongingness and specifically the need for friends, spouses, children, parents and group membership. This particular need involves both giving and receiving,

·        Fourth: Esteem needs, this need has two dimension; internal-strength, achievement, adequacy, confidence, freedom, and external-reputation, prestige, recognition, importance appreciation. Satisfaction of this class of needs leads to self-confidence and a feeling of adequacy.

·        Fifth, the need for self actualisation: this is the need to become more and more of what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. (Maslow, 1943: 370). This needs was of great interest to Maslow and he devoted a great deal of effort to it. Its satisfaction is difficult to achieve and is indeed achieved by very few. Values espoused by self-actualisation people include truth, goodness, unit, uniqueness, justice, order, playfulness, self-sufficiency and meaningfulness. It is different from other needs in that it is never fully satisfied and it is self reinforcing the more you achieve it, the more of it you want.

Most discussions of Maslow theory are limits to these five (5) needs. There is however two (2), other which even Maslow himself, gave relatively little attention. These two are:

The Aesthetic needs: A craving for beauty in one's surroundings. Cognitive needs: These are the desire to know (being aware of reality, getting the facts, satisfying curiosity) and the desire to understand (the need to systemise, organise, analyse and seek relationships and meanings).

          Maslow divided these needs into deficiency and growth needs, with self-actualisation being the key growth need. Some writers term them lower and higher level needs.

ii.       HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY

          He asserted that there are hygienic factors, which do not motivate but can cause disaffection if not properly handled. These factors include salary, job security, workings conditions, fringe benefits security and relationship with peers. These are related to the job context. There is a second group of factors, which actually motivate. These include achievement, recognition, work itself and responsibility. He therefore suggested job enrichment as a strategy for increasing the motivators at work as against the hygienic KITA (Kick in the Ars) elements (Herezberg, 1969).

iii.      THEORY X AND THEORY Y (Douglas McGregor: 1957 And 1960).

          Macgregor theory X and theory Y was the outcome of a speech – THE HUMAN SIDE OF ENTERPRISE –which he delivered at the 5th convocation ceremony of MIT school of management in April, 1957. He eventually transformed his ideas into a book-his first and only book-which was published under the same title in 1960. He argues that management assumptions (implicit and explicit) about the control of human resources determine the quality of the enterprise and its management. He holds that existing assumptions were counter productive and goes on to present a new set of assumptions that would create an organisational climate conducive to human growth and development.

Theory X

McGregor reviewed extent paradigm, which dominated management thinking and practice and came out with the following propositions and assumptions, which he termed theory X. (McGregor, 1960:33), the proposition are that:

·        Management is responsible for organising the factors of production toward the attainment of economics goals

·        As it concerns people, management task is to channel their efforts to fits the needs of the organisation.

·        People would ordinarily be passive to organisation needs and it is the task of management to direct their activities.

Theory Y

A part from the first proposition, which is the same for X and Y, there are three (3) dramatically, opposed propositions for this theory Y:

·                     People are not naturally passive or resistant to organisation needs, they have become so, due to their experiences in the organisations.

·                     The motivation, potential, capacity for responsibility and readiness to work for organisation goals are inherent in people; management's responsibility is to recognise and develop these characteristics.

·                     The essential task of management is to manage affairs in such a way that people achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards organisational objectives. He then propose the following assumptions as the foundations of theory Y

   i.    The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

ii       The average human being learns under proper conditions, not only to accept best to seek responsibility

iii                Commitment to objective is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.

iv      The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organisation problem is widely distributed in the population. The theory Y assumptions promote a new paradigm, a paradigm of respect and dignity for the workers, a belief that he can direct his own effort toward organisation goals.

v     McClelland's Achievement Theory: This theory states that people are propelled by the need for achievement (N Ach) or the fear of failure, the need for power and the need for affiliation. Some people have high N'Ach while others do not. These who have high N'Ach are characterised by

·                  Moderate risk-taking

·                  Need for immediate achievement

·                  Satisfaction with accomplishment in itself

·                  Pre-occupation with tasks

·                  Concern for people and production

·                  Favourable view of subordinates.

·                  Optimism

·                  Open communication and interacts

The process theories are theories that address themselves principally to the motivational, process, rather than to specific individual needs or environment re-enforces. There are two (2) major process theories, namely equity theory and VIE (expectancy) theory.

vi.     Equity Theory (Adams J.S. 1961): This theory was developed and tested by Adams in 1963 when he was a research psychologist with General Electric Company in New York. The theory has its intellectual roots in the concepts of cognitive Dissonance (developed by Festingera L., 1957) and Distributive Justice (developed by Homans, G.C. 1961).  The three (3) major variables in the theory are:

·        Inputs: Various investments that an individual brings to bear on his work (education, intelligence, experience, effort, and training)

·        Outcomes: Various dividends that he receives from the work (pay, intrinsic rewards, status, fringe benefits, and seniority benefits)

·        Reference person: A person or group used as a yardstick in evaluating the equity of ones input-out come ratio.

vii.    VIE (expectancy) Theory

Championed by Victor Vroom, this is based on three concepts: Valence (the value attached to a reward); instrumentality (The probability that performance world lead to rewards) and expectancy (the expectation that efforts would lead to performance). Motivation thus occurs when a staff believes that his efforts would lead to performance, performance would lead to rewards and that the rewards would be valued. Motivational strategies, thus would be aimed at:

    i.        Match rewards to needs

  ii.       Match rewards to performance and let this be known

  iii.      Match people to the jobs

          For instance, a worker who wants promotion or an increase in salary has his valence to promotion or increase in salary. He can only be motivated if he has strong expectancy that promotion or increase in salary will satisfy his personal needs.

          On the other hand, if a worker is not concerned with promotion (valence is zero) or actively wishes to avoid promotion (valence is negative). He will not be motivated to do anything that can lead to promotion. The advantage of Victor Vroom's theory is that in comparison with Herzberg's ideas, a better distinction is made between an individual's goals and organisational goals.

2.14        SOME TRAINING INSTITUTION IN NIGERIA

(a)     The Centre For management Development (CMD)

The centre for management development is the operational aim of the Nigeria Council for Management Development (NCMD), whose existence since 1972 was formalised by Act 51 of October 1976. The need to establish the Nigeria council for management development and its operational aim, the centre for management development was first recognised (meeting of the national manpower board, which was held on October 20, 1965). At the meeting, it was observed that a major bottleneck in the effort to raise productivity was comparatively low quality of management at all level, it also noted that despite the existence of a considerable number and variety of facilities for management training, there was lack of effective co-ordination and the absence of a central source of information leading to wastage and unnecessary duplication of courses.

(b)     The Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON)

          The administrative staff college of Nigeria is located at Topo very close to Badagry in Lagos State. The origin of ASCON can be traced to February 1967 when the Federal Government of Nigeria mandated the Institute of Administration of the University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University) to conduct a study of the training needs of the federal civil service.

          ASCON was established by Decree No. 39 of 1973 with the following objectives:

i.                   To provide higher management training for public and private sectors of the Nigeria of the Nigeria economy.

ii.                 To conduct research into the problems of management and administration arising in different spheres of national life etc.

iii.      The college also provide consulting service to the public sector and on request can design and implement tailor made courses, delivered either in client location or in ASCON. Six major training strategies used by ASCON are academic strategy, laboratory strategy, activity strategy, action programme strategy, development strategy and organisation development strategy.

(c)      Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria

          The Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria (IPMN) is a professional management association, which makes a significant contribution to the training of personnel management practitioners as well as training and development specialist

(d)     The Nigeria Institute of Management (NIM)

          The Nigeria institute of management was established in 1961. It is a professional body for management and administrator from both the private and public sectors of the economy. The institute is involved in organisation of annual management conference, seminars, workshops and distinguished lecture series. Nigeria Institute of Management also deals with the preparation of training courses.

(e)      The Industrial Fund (ITF)

          The Industrial Fund is the recent of yet another effort by the Federal Government of Nigeria to ensure that adequate trained manpower are available to run industry and commerce.

          In summary, all the foregoing (above research) shows that a lot of work has been done by various scholars on the subject of training and development. They have all stress the importance of training and development in contemporary business organisation and that the training emphasis placed by any organisation on the training and development of employees is implicitly emphasis placed on productivity.

          Finally, in my own view I see training and development employment as been vital to any organisation's survival. Although various motivators, like incentives, monetary, recreational facilities have been put in place to boost workers productivity. Also effort should be made by the organisation to identify the training needs of workers and put them in positions in which they have the required skill.

          Training and development is not just training the workers about the job for which they are employed but also training them in readiness for any top management position and future held of the organisation.


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A Case Study of Nigeria Banking Industry.

 

 


CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     INTRODUCTION

Research methodology is a scientific, systematic and sequential process by which data are collected, analysed and interpreted with a view of drawing a valid conclusion thereof. Furthermore, research methodology is the technique by which data are collected and analysed in order to test the proposed hypothesis. It also seek to explain the methods, how the objective of the research work would be achieved; and also how the problems encountered during the course of the research will be solved.

This chapter outline will show the method used to obtain data and the sequence followed in the research work. It will also specify the various techniques used in carrying out this research to ensure that it provides a meaningful and unbiased result.

3.2            EMPLOYEES INVOLVEMENT IN TRAINING

Texaco Oil Nigeria Plc, attaches great importance to training and re-training of all categories of its employees. Regular routine meeting are put in place to ensure exchange of ideas between staff and management through a consultative committee, briefing sessions and company council meetings. The policy of the organisation recognises human resource as the most important assets of the organisation. It is therefore imperative to retain and motivate skilled worker through systematic training and development.

Training consequently, form part of individual development towards achieving excellence in performance of the day-to-day activities. Texaco oil Nigeria Plc has a training school at the head office in Lagos. Various in-house courses are also supplemented by external course for employees within and outside Nigeria. Texaco oil Nigeria plc encourages self-development schemes, which enable employees to improve themselves academically and professionally in their chosen careers.

It is the policy of the group that there is no discrimination in the employment, training and careers development of all categories of people including disables persons. The health and welfare of the work force are prime in all their activities. Employees enjoy free medical services at the group clinics located in Island, Apapa, Ikeja and Alapere by full-time medical doctors and qualified nurses. Besides; special arrangement are made with recognised hospital as retainers to provide medical attention to employees in locations where there are no clinics.

It is also the policy of the organisation to ensure that their work environment is safe and clean. Heavily subsidised canteen services are provided while recreational facilities are provided for in some parts of the country.

3.3            POPULATION OF STUDY

Population is the total number of people who live in a particular area. Also, population is a complete set of individuals and objects having some common features, which can be observed. For the purpose of this study, the finite population studies were the entire staff of the Texaco oil Nigeria plc; which comprised of both senior and junior staff. This helped to bring into response from different classes of staff from skills within the organisation.

3.4            SAMPLE AND SAMPLE DESIGN

Sample is an arbitrary subset of the population that is any collection of individuals from the population of study. It is partial reflection of the population from which it is drawn. The research could not be carried out to cover the entire staff of the company mainly because of the financial and time constrained. Therefore, for the purpose of simplicity in conducting this study a sample of 150 staff was chosen.

3.5     RESEARCH SAMPLE

          A sample may be defined as a collection of individuals, which form part of a class or population observed for the purpose of making scientific statement about the population.

          The total population studies comprised of administrative staff such as accountants, medical doctors, engineers and technologists as well as junior staff comprising technicians, engine crew, machine men, clerical and labourers, from all branches spread all over Lagos.

          This will help to bring in the response of different classes of staff from skills within the organisation. The same population can be divided into classes:

a.     Management

b.     Employees (senior and junior staff)

3.6     SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED

          Sampling is that part of population which is being investigated. In conducting this study, a combination of both quota and random sampling techniques were used.

          Random sampling involves a selection such that every single within the population has an equal chance of being chosen as a member of the sample. Quota sampling in it parts, involves breaking down the population into sub-population or groups, and from each group a certain number of units are selected to be included in the sample.

          The choice of this sample is to ensure that the two (2) elements present in the population are given adequate consideration in the same proportion in which they appear in the population. Selection of sample within each staff group for either questionnaire or interviews were carried out using random sampling techniques.


3.7     DATA COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION OF ANALYSIS

In collecting data for these projects both primary and secondary data sourcing were employed. Questionnaires, which constituted the primary source of data, were distributed among the member of staff. The questionnaire was constructed in simple English bearing in mind, it was meant for people, some of which have primary education only.

Question aimed at drawing information about the workers, sex,

age, qualification, remuneration, incentive, motivational, job security, management training and work conditions. In secondary data sourcing, various record were recommend, such as training records and personnel records.

3.8     INTERVIEW METHOD

          Interview will be conducted with officers whose responsibilities are related to areas of research study. These include the training and development managers, instructor and management trainees. The interview is aimed at collecting information about the procedure, methods, and functioning in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC in the implementation of their training programme. This was not easy at the beginning of this research because there was initial fear to pass information as well as getting to staff for intention. The initial fear of discussing the company affair with an outside was overtaken by time following my continuous pressure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1     DATA GATHERING ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

This chapter deals with the analysis and presentation of the data gathered in the course of the research. The research seeks to appraise the impact of training and development on the productivity of workers in TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC. To do this, a sample of the population of TEXACO OIL NIGERIA PLC workers was taken and questionnaires were administered.

The questionnaire, comprising 2 (Two) items, was administered and 150 copies were administered on management staff and others on junior workers.

4.2     DATA PRESENTATION

TABLE 4.1:

Male

Female

Total

96

54

150

96

54

150

Source: Fieldwork



TABLE 4.2: AGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS

Items

Male

Female

Total

21-25

5

5

10

26-30

55

45

100

31-35

10

4

10

36-40

8

4

12

41-45

7

3

10

46& Above

6

2

8

Total

96

54

150